[BoDD logo]

Google


 
Google uses cookies
to display context-
sensitive ads on this
page. Learn how to
manage Google cookies
by visiting the

Google Technologies Centre

 
 
 
 
 ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼

 

 ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲

[BBEdit logo]

   Index



 

POLYPODIOPSIDA & LYCOPODIOPSIDA

(Ferns, Horsetails, & Lycophytes)

 

• Medicinal / Folk-medicinal aspects: A number of ferns have long been recognised as having medicinal value in the treatment of skin conditions, especially in regions of the World where they grow luxuriantly. The conditions they have variously been used to treat include dandruff, hair loss, burns, scalds, sores between the toes, eczema, boils, carbuncles, furuncles, open sores / ulcers, cuts and wounds, haemorrhoids, lice and scabies. •
• Adverse effects: Although substances known to be contact allergens have been reported from pteridophytes, contact dermatitis following exposure to pteridophytes or their extractives has only very occasionally been described. Potentially contact allergenic substances in pteridophytes would include nickel and/or chromium compounds found in terrestrial ferns that have the ability to hyperaccumulate nickel and/or chromium from soils rich in these elements. Certain aquatic ferns, when growing in water contaminated with these [and other] metals may similarly acquire the potential to elicit dermatitis in metal-sensitised individuals. More commonly reported are positive skin test reactions to various fern spore extracts in atopic (Geller-Bernstein et al. 1987, Simán et al. 1999, Sharma et al. 2010) and in allergic rhinitis patients (Bunnag et al. 1989, Kofler et al. 2000). Galleried rhizomes are found in two or three genera of myrmecophytic ferns (Gerson 1979), in which ants will nest. If the ants they house are an aggressive species, these ferns can be dermatologically hazardous to those who attempt to collect them in their natural habitat (see also Schmidt 1985). These myrmecophytic ferns can be found growing singly or in communities of two or more species of botanically unrelated epiphytes known as "ant gardens". These are arboreal ant nests. Various other adventitious species of fern that are neither myrmecophytes nor "ant garden restricted" can also be found growing on ant gardens (Davidson 1988) or may otherwise provide nesting sites for ants as "nest epiphytes" in which the leaves or fronds form a kind of funnel where humus accumulates and water is retained, or "bracket epiphytes" in which humus accumulates and water is retained in the spaces between appressed leaves or fronds and the bark of the tree (Derzhavina 2017). These would be similarly hazardous for plant collectors. Mite-infested fern wreaths are another potential cause of fern-related "pseudophytodermatitis". •
• Veterinary aspects: Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn) and also Pteridium esculentum Cockayne (fam. Dennstaedtiaceae), Cheilanthes sieberi Kunze = Hemionitis sieberi Christenh. (fam. Pteridaceae), Marsilea drummondii A.Braun (fam. Marsileaceae), and perhaps other species contain a thiaminase enzyme that can induce avitaminosis B1 (beri-beri in humans) in animals that graze on these ferns. Bracken fern also contains other toxins and in particular ptaquiloside, a carcinogen, that is/are hazardous for farm animals (see Evans et al. 1982, Gil da Costa et al. 2012, Tourchi-Roudsari 2014). Literature describing veterinary dermatological uses or adverse effects of these or other ferns is otherwise sparse to non-existent. •

Ferns, horsetails, and lycophytes (collectively, "pteridophytes") are vascular plants that reproduce by spores rather than seeds. They are of widespread distribution, with greatest diversity occurring in wet tropical mountainous regions (Tryon 1986).

The taxonomy and nomenclature of ferns has proved to be challenging and this has spawned a multitude of names for almost every fern taxon. Only in recent years has molecular phylogenetics begun to clarify relationships. The Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group [PPG] consensus classification of 2016 (PPG I 2016) treated an estimated 11916 species in 51 families comprising 337 genera in 4 sub-classes: Equisetidae (the horsetails), Ophioglossidae (the whisk ferns, grape ferns, adder's tongues, and moonworts), Marattiidae (giant ferns), and Polypodiidae (the true ferns). However, not all authorities accept the consensus classification produced by the PPG, Christenhusz & Chase (2018) arguing explicitly that the PPG recognises too many fern genera.

The lycophytes (the club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts) represent a line of evolution distinct from that leading to all other vascular plants including ferns. They are placed by the PPG (PPG I 2016) in a separate class, the Lycopodiopsida.

As ornamental foliage plants grown in gardens, in greenhouses, as houseplants, or encountered as weeds (Hunt 1968/70), many are known to homemakers, gardeners, horticulturalists, florists, and others who may handle these plants occupationally.



FERNS – ANEMIACEAE

(Flowering Fern family)

 



Anemia caffrorum (L.) Christenh.
[syns Mohria caffrorum (L.) Desv., Polypodium caffrorum L.]
Frankincense Fern, Parsley Fern, Scented Fern

Whilst some authorities would place the genus Anemia Sw. in the family Schizaeaceae (see Christenhusz & Chase 2014, Plants of the World Online), the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (PPG I 2016) concluded that it should be placed in the Anemiaceae.

In southern Africa, an ointment containing the dried frond from Mohria caffrorum has been used as a cooling application to burns and scalds. The bruised fern gives off a fragrant balsamic odour (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962).

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Anemia vestita (Baker) Christenh.
[syns Mohria caffrorum var. vestita (Baker) F.Ballard, Mohria vestita Baker]
Scented Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – ASPLENIACEAE

(Spleenwort family)

 



Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L.
[syns Chamaefilix adiantum-nigrum (L.) Farw., Tarachia adiantum-nigrum (L.) C.Presl]
Black Spleenwort, Doradille Noire, Schwarzer Streifenfarn

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Asplenium bulbiferum G.Forst.
[syns Caenopteris bulbifera (G.Forst.) Desv., Chamaefilix bulbifera (G.Forst.) Farw.]
Hen and Chickens Fern, Mother Spleenwort

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Asplenium ceterach L.
[syns Ceterach officinarum Willd., Hemidictyum ceterach (L.) Bedd., Vittaria ceterach (L.) Bernh.]
Rustyback Fern, Scale Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Asplenium dalhousieae Hook.
[syns Asplenium alternans Wall. ex Hook., Asplenium dalhousiae Hook., Asplenium rupium Goodd., Ceterach alternans Kuhn & Decken, Ceterach dalhousieae (Hook.) C.Chr.]
Countess Dalhousie's Spleenwort, Dalhousie Spleenwort

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Asplenium eylesii Sim
[syns Asplenium hymenophylloides Fée, Asplenium pumilum subsp. hymenophylloides (Fée) Schelpe, Asplenium pumilum var. hymenophylloides (Fée) C.B.Clarke]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Asplenium laciniatum D.Don subsp. laciniatum
[syns Asplenium fimbriatum Kunze, Asplenium parvulum Wall., Asplenium ruta Wall., Asplenium varians Wall. ex Hook. & Grev., etc.]
Variable Spleenwort

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Asplenium lamprophyllum Carse
Shining Leaf Spleenwort

According to Plants of the World Online, this fern is native to the North Island (Te Ika-a-Māui) of New Zealand. Briggs & Taylor (1947) reported that the odour of oil of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) could be detected in the freshly broken stalks of this fern. Steam distillation of the stalks followed by fractionation afforded an oil that was chemically identified as methyl salicylate.

[Methyl Salicylate]

Methyl salicylate is recognised as a rubefacient when applied to the skin (Derry et al. 2014). When applied in various vehicles to the shaved skin of rabbits at a concentration as low as 1%, it is a moderate irritant and may elicit necrosis and intradermal and subcutaneous haemorrhage. Undiluted, it is a severe irritant to guinea pig skin and eyes. A maximisation test with 8% methyl salicylate in petrolatum failed to sensitise any of 27 volunteers (Opdyke 1978). However, contact sensitivity to methyl salicylate, confirmed by positive patch test reactions, has occasionally been reported, usually as an iatrogenic reaction following the use of topical medicaments containing methyl salicylate (Hindson 1977, Rudner 1977, Morgan 1968, Ueda et al. 1999, Oiso et al. 2004).



Asplenium lobulatum Mett.
[syns Asplenium pseudofalcatum Hillebr., Chamaefilix lobulata (Mett.) Farw., Chamaefilix pseudofalcata (Hillebr.) Farw.]
Piipi Lau Manamana, Pi'ipi'i Lau Manamana, Piipiilau Manamana

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Asplenium mysorense B.Heyne ex Roth
[syns Asplenium bipinnatum (Sledge) Philcox, Asplenium polyodon var. bipinnatum (Sledge) Sledge]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Asplenium nidus L.
[syns Asplenium nidus-avis hort., Neottopteris nidus (L.) J.Sm., Thamnopteris nidus (L.) C.Presl, Thamnopteris nidus-avis auct.]
Bird's Nest Fern, Hawaii Birdnest Fern, Nest Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Asplenium obtusatum G.Forst.
[syns Asplenium lucidum var. obliquum (G.Forst.) T.Moore, Asplenium obliquum G.Forst., Asplenium obtusatum var. obliquum (G.Forst.) Hook.]
Shore Spleenwort

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Asplenium ruta-muraria L.
[syns Acrostichum ruta-muraria (L.) Lam., Phyllitis ruta-muraria (L.) Moench, Scolopendrium ruta-muraria (L.) Roth]
Stone Fern, Wall Rue, Wall Rue Spleenwort, White Maidenhair, Doradille des Murailles, Mauerraute, Mauerstreifenfarn

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Asplenium scolopendrium L. subsp. scolopendrium
[syns Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newman, Scolopendrium officinale Lam. & DC., Scolopendrium vulgare Sm.]
Hart's Tongue, Hind's Tongue, Horse Tongue, Tongue Fern, Langue de Cerf, Hirschzunge

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Asplenium serratum L.
[syns Asplenium crenulatum C.Presl, Chamaefilix serrata (L.) Farw.]
Bird's Nest Spleenwort, New World Birdnest Fern, Wild Birdnest Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Asplenium trichomanes L.
[syns Athyrium trichomanes (L.) Shafer, Chamaefilix trichomanes (L.) Farw.]
Maidenhair Spleenwort

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Asplenium viride Huds.
[syns Asplenium ramosum L., Asplenium trichomanes-ramosum L.]
Green Spleenwort, Grüner Streifenfarn

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Stenochlaena palustris (Burm.f.) Bedd.
[syns Acrostichum scandens Hook., Polypodium palustre Burm.f., Pteris scandens Roxb., etc.]
Climbing Fern, Hagnaya, Swamp Fern

Shelley et al. (1985) described a case of a 21-year-old man who presented with a pruritic erythematous eruption of the volar forearms, lower parts of the legs, and eyelids, that had increased in severity over 12 days. He was working in a wholesale florist supply shop handling "Polypodium fern wreaths" also described as "Hagnaya wreaths". The botanical identity of the fern was not stated, but the common name hagnaya is used in the Philippines for the fern Stenochlaena palustris (see Belonias & Bañoc 1994, de Winter & Amoroso 2003). These fern wreaths had been imported into the US from the Philippines. Investigation of the pruritic eruption revealed that the fern wreaths were infested with at least six different species of mite, one of which, Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans (fam. Cheyletidae) having previously been proven able to cause pruritic disease (Yoshikawa 1985).

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – ATHYRIACEAE

(Lady Fern family)

 



Athyrium hohenackerianum (Kunze) Moore
[syns Allantodia hohenackeriana (Kunze) Kunze, Asplenium hohenackerianum Kunze]

The genus Athyrium Roth has variously been placed in the Aspleniaceae (Mabberley 1987), Dryopteridaceae, and Woodsiaceae (Brummitt 1992), but is currently regarded as a member of the Athyriaceae (Mabberley 2017, PPG I 2016).

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Diplazium Sw.
Twin-Sorus Fern

The genus Diplazium Sw. has variously been placed in the Aspleniaceae (Mabberley 1987), Dryopteridaceae, and Woodsiaceae (Brummitt 1992), but is currently regarded as a member of the Athyriaceae (Mabberley 2017, PPG I 2016).



Diplazium arnottii Brack.
[syns Athyrium arnottii (Brack.) Milde, Athyrium meyenianum (C.Presl) Milde, Diplazium meyenianum C.Presl]
Arnott's Twin-Sorus Fern, Meyen's Twin-Sorus Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Diplazium echinatum C.Chr.

Christensen (1943) noted that this species resembles Diplazium proliferum [see below] in its spiny stipe and rachises.



Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw.
[syns Anisogonium esculentum (Retz.) C.Presl, Callipteris esculenta (Retz.) J.Sm., Hemionitis esculenta Retz., etc.]
Vegetable Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Diplazium proliferum (Lam.) Kaulf.
[syns Asplenium proliferum Lam., Diplazium accedens Blume, Diplazium horridum Kunze, Diplazium proliferum (Lam.) Thouars, Diplazium spinosum Bory]
Mother Fern

The species is rather variable, Christensen (1943) referring to three distinct forms, one of which having a rather densely spiny stipe. According to Johns (1991), the form with a very spiny stipe is found in New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Samoa.



FERNS – BLECHNACEAE

(Chain Fern or Hard Fern family)

 



Blechnopsis C.Presl

Whilst some authorities would place the two species of this genus in the genus Blechnum L. within the Aspleniaceae (see Christenhusz & Chase 2014, Plants of the World Online), the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (PPG I 2016) concluded that they should be separated from Blechnum and that both genera be placed in the Blechnaceae.



Blechnopsis orientalis (L.) C.Presl
[syns Asplenium orientale (L.) Bernh., Blechnum elongatum Gaudich., Blechnum orientale L., etc.]
Barking Deer Fern, Centipede Fern, Oriental Blechnum, Oriental Hammock Fern, Shield Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Blechnum discolor (Forst.) Keyserl.
[syns Lomaria discolor Willd., Osmunda discolor G.Forst.]
Crown Fern, Piupiu

Blechnum Discolor Leaf Extract [INCI; of uncertain composition (see Schmidt 2017)], is a recognised cosmetic product ingredient purported to have humectant and skin conditioning properties (Standing Committee on Cosmetic Products 2019, CosIng 2022).



Sadleria cyatheoides Kaulf.
[syns Blechnum cyatheoides (Kaulf.) Christenh., Woodwardia cyatheoides (Kaulf.) Mett.]
Rasp Fern, Red Pig

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Sadleria pallida Hook. & Arn.
[syns Blechnum pallidum (Hook. & Arn.) Brack., Sadleria hillebrandii W.J.Rob.]
Red Pig

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Struthiopteris spicant (L.) Weiss
[syns Blechnum spicant (L.) Sm., Lomaria spicant (L.) Desv., Osmunda spicant L.]
Deer Fern, Hard Fern, Blechnum en Épi, Fougère de Chevreuil, Rippenfarn

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Woodwardia unigemmata (Makino) Nakai
[syns Blechnum japonicum Houtt., Woodwardia himalaica Ching & S.K.Wu, Woodwardia radicans var. unigemmata Makino]
Chain Fern, Jewelled Chain Fern, Walking Fern

Whilst some authorities would place the genus in the Aspleniaceae (see Christenhusz & Chase 2014), and others have placed it in the Polypodiaceae (see Stolze 1981), the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (PPG I 2016) concluded that the genus should be placed in the Blechnaceae.

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – CIBOTIACEAE

(Cibotium or Tree Fern family)

 



Cibotium Kaulf.
Tree Ferns

Comprising about 9 species, the genus Cibotium, which was formerly placed in the Dicksoniaceae, has been placed by the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (PPG I 2016) in its own family, namely the Cibotiaceae. Other authorities (see Christenhusz & Chase 2014, Plants of the World Online) would place the genus in the Cyatheaceae.



Cibotium barometz (L.) J.Sm.
[syns Cibotium assamicum Hook., Cibotium glaucescens Kunze, Dicksonia barometz (L.) Link, Polypodium barometz L., etc.]
Barometz, Chain Fern, Golden Chicken Fern, Scythian Lamb, Woolly Fern, Agneau de Scythie

Referring the crude drug Golden Moss, known in Malaysia as Pengawar Djambi, the 20th edition of the United States Dispensatory (Remington et al. 1918) recorded that it is composed of silky, long, soft, yellow or brownish hairs, which have the power of causing rapid coagulation of blood, and, when properly used, of mechanically arresting hemorrhages from capillaries. Kirtikar & Basu (1935), Caius (1935/6), Puri (1970), and Ong & Nordiana (1999) also recorded this use, identifying Cibotium barometz as the botanical source. The 25th edition of the United States Dispensatory (Osol et al. 1955) noted that Pengawar Djambi is derived from Cibotium barometz but also from other ferns including Cibotium glaucum (Sm.) Hook. & Arn. [which is native to Hawaii] and Alsophila lurida (Blume) Hook. [= Gymnosphaera lurida (Blume) S.Y.Dong (syn. Chnoophora lurida Blume), fam. Cyatheaceae].

Estrin et al. (1977) included Pengawar Djambi Oil in a Cosmetic Ingredient Directory, citing "USD25th Edit." as their information source. Interestingly, no reference is made in the 25th edition of the United States Dispensatory to an oil obtained from Pengawar Djambi (see Osol et al. 1955). Cibotium Barometz Oil [INCI; CAS RN 89997-67-1; of uncertain composition (see Schmidt 2017)]a, which may or may not be the same preparation as Pengawar Djambi Oil, is a recognised cosmetic product ingredient purported to have skin conditioning properties (Standing Committee on Cosmetic Products 2019, CosIng 2022).

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – CYATHEACEAE

(Scaly Tree Fern family)

 



Alsophila R.Br.
[syn. Nephelea R.M.Tryon]

Many species bear black squaminate spines (squama + natus: born of a scale) on the stems and petioles. Gastony (1973) noted that the presence of conspicuous squaminate spines on the petioles and unexpanded croziers was a characteristic of the genus Nephelea R.M.Tryon, now subsumed into Alsophila R.Br. In general, spines are restricted to those species with a tall, stout stem although reduced spines are present in Alsophila brooksii (Maxon) R.M.Tryon and in certain hybrids between spiny and spineless species. The presence of petiole spines is precisely correlated with the presence of stem spines (Conant 1983). The following is a representative list of spiny species capable of inflicting mechanical injury (Holttum 1935, Gastony 1973, Bezona et al. 1994, Lehnert 2006a, Lehnert 2011, Hyde et al. 2022):

Alsophila auneae D.S.Conant
[syn. Nephelea pubescens (Kuhn) R.M.Tryon]
Alsophila balanocarpa (D.C.Eaton) D.S.Conant
[syn. Nephelea balanocarpa (D.C.Eaton) R.M.Tryon]
Alsophila conantiana Lehnert
Alsophila cuspidata (Kunze) D.S.Conant
[syn. Nephelea cuspidata (Kunze) R.M.Tryon]
Alsophila erinacea (H.Karst.) D.S.Conant
[syn. Nephelea erinacea (H.Karst.) R.M.Tryon]
Alsophila firma (Baker) D.S.Conant
[syns Cyathea mexicana Schltdl. & Cham., Nephelea mexicana (Schltdl. & Cham.) R.M.Tryon]
Alsophila fulgens (C.Chr.) D.S.Conant
[syn. Nephelea fulgens (C.Chr.) Gastony]
Alsophila gastonyi Lehnert
Alsophila grevilleana (Mart.) D.S.Conant
[syn. Nephelea grevilleana (Mart.) R.M.Tryon]
Alsophila imrayana (Hook.) D.S.Conant
[syns Cyathea imrayana Hook., Nephelea imrayana (Hook.) R.M.Tryon]
Alsophila jimeneziana D.S.Conant
[syn. Nephelea crassa (Maxon) R.M.Tryon]
Alsophila latebrosa Wall. ex Hook.
[syn. Cyathea latebrosa (Wall. ex Hook.) Copel.]
Alsophila leichhardtiana F.Muell. — Prickly Tree Fern
[syn. Cyathea leichhardtiana (F.Muell.) Copel.]
Alsophila manniana (Hook.) R.M.Tryon — Spiny Kilimanjaro Tree Fern
[syn. Cyathea manniana Hook.]
Alsophila minervae Lehnert
Alsophila pacifica Christenh.
[syn. Cyathea samoensis Baker]
Alsophila polystichoides Christ
[syns Cyathea caduca Christ, Nephelea polystichoides (Christ) R.M.Tryon]
Alsophila portoricensis (Kuhn) D.S.Conant
[syn. Nephelea portoricensis (Kuhn) R.M.Tryon]
Alsophila setosa Kaulf.
[syn. Nephelea setosa (Kaulf.) R.M.Tryon]
Alsophila sternbergii (Pohl) D.S.Conant
[syn. Nephelea sternbergii (Pohl) R.M.Tryon]
Alsophila tryoniana (Gastony) D.S.Conant
[syn. Nephelea tryoniana Gastony]
Alsophila tussacii (Desv.) D.S.Conant
[syn. Nephelea tussacii (Desv.) R.M.Tryon]
Alsophila woodwardioides (Kaulf.) D.S.Conant
[syn. Nephelea woodwardioides (Kaulf.) Gastony] 

Large & Braggins (2004) provide descriptions of many other tree ferns, including Alsophila R.Br. and Cyathea Sm. species, that bear spines or thorns.



Alsophila nilgirensis (Holttum) R.M.Tryon
[syns Alsophila latebrosa var. schmidiana Kunze, Cyathea nilgirensis Holttum]

Large & Braggins (2004) note that the stipe of Cyathea nilgirensis is either warty or has short spines toward the base.

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Alsophila spinulosa (Wall. ex Hook.) R.M.Tryon
[syns Cyathea fauriei Copel., Cyathea spinulosa Wall. ex Hook.]
Flying Spider-Monkey Tree Fern, Large Spiny Tree Fern, Spiny Alsophila, Spiny Tree Fern

A diagnostic characteristic of this tree fern is that the stipe and rachis is spiny (Dong 2020). Large & Braggins (2004) similarly note that the stipe of Cyathea spinulosa is covered with spines.

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Alsophila tricolor (Colenso) R.M.Tryon
[syns Alsophila dealbata auct. non C.Presl, Cyathea dealbata (G.Forst.) Sw., Cyathea tricolor Colenso, Polypodium dealbatum G.Forst.]
Silver Fern, Silver King Fern, Silver Tree Fern, Silberner Baumfarn

The pith from a tree fern known to the Māori as ponga, which has been identified as Cyathea dealbata, has reportedly been used as a poultice for [unspecified] cutaneous eruptions (Brooker & Cooper 1961a, 1961b).

This fern was the inspiration behind the silver fern emblem that has been accepted since the 1880s as a symbol of New Zealand's national identity.



Cyathea Sm.

This is a genus of tree ferns comprising, according to PPG I (2016), 265 species, many of which are spiny. The following is a representative list of spiny species (Gastony 1973, Lehnert 2006b, Lehnert 2009, Lehnert 2011, Tejedor & Areces-Berazain 2018):

Cyathea andina (H.Karst.) Domin
Cyathea concinna (Baker) Jenman
[syns Nephelea concinna (Baker) R.M.Tryon, Sphaeropteris concinna (Baker) R.M.Tryon]
Cyathea conjugata (Spruce ex Hook.) Domin
[syn. Alsophila conjugata Spruce ex Hook.]
Cyathea ewanii Alston
Cyathea guentheriana Lehnert
Cyathea incana H.Karst.
[syns Alsophila incana (H.Karst.) D.S.Conant, Nephelea incana (H.Karst.) Gastony]
Cyathea microdonta (Desv.) Domin
Cyathea nervosa (Maxon) Lehnert
[syn. Hemitelia nervosa Maxon]
Cyathea pungens (Willd.) Domin — Spiny Treefern
[syn. Polypodium pungens Willd.]
Cyathea ruttenbergiae A.Tejedor & F.Areces
Cyathea xenoxyla Lehnert 

Large & Braggins (2004) provide descriptions of many other tree ferns, including Alsophila R.Br. and Cyathea Sm. species, that bear spines or thorns.



Gymnosphaera gigantea (Wall. ex Hook.) S.Y.Dong
[syns Alsophila balakrishnanii (R.D.Dixit & A.K.Tripathi) R.D.Dixit, Alsophila gigantea Wall. ex Hook., Alsophila glabra Bedd., Cyathea balakrishnanii R.D.Dixit & A.K.Tripathi, Cyathea gigantea (Wall. ex Hook.) Holttum, Polypodium giganteum Wall.]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Gymnosphaera henryi (Baker) S.R.Ghosh
[syns Alsophila henryi Baker, Cyathea henryi (Baker) Copel.]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Sphaeropteris albosetacea (Bedd.) R.M.Tryon
[syns Alsophila albosetacea Bedd., Cyathea albosetacea (Bedd.) Copel.]

Large & Braggins (2004) note that the rachis of Cyathea albosetacea bears short spines.

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Sphaeropteris brunoniana (Wall. ex Hook.) R.M.Tryon
[syns Alsophila brunoniana Wall. ex Hook., Cyathea brunoniana (Wall. ex Hook.) C.B.Clarke & Baker]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Sphaeropteris glauca (Blume) R.M.Tryon
[syns Alsophila contaminans Wall. ex Hook., Alsophila glauca (Blume) J.Sm., Chnoophora glauca Blume, Cyathea contaminans (Wall. ex Hook.) Copel.]
Blue Tree Fern, Mountain Tree Fern

Dong (2020) noted that the stipe of this scaly tree fern, at least on the lower part, is sharply spiny. Referring to Cyathea contaminans, Holttum (1935) described the base of the stipe as strongly thorny; and Large & Braggins (2004) note that the rachis and the stipe are spiny. Bezona et al. (1994), referring incorrectly to the blue tree fern found in Java, Malaysia, and Assam as "Cyathea glauca", noted that the fronds are slight to heavily armed with spines.

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Sphaeropteris medullaris (G.Forst.) Bernh.
[syns Cyathea cumingii Baker, Cyathea medullaris (G.Forst.) Sw., Polypodium medullare G.Forst.]
Black Fern, Black Tree Fern, Ponga Fern, Sago Fern, Schwarzer Baumfarn

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Sphaeropteris moluccana (R.Br. ex Desv.) R.M.Tryon
[syns Cyathea brunonis Wall. ex Hook., Cyathea moluccana R.Br. ex Desv., Cyathea pinnata Roxb., Schizocaena moluccana (R.Br. ex Desv.) Copel.]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Sphaeropteris tripinnata (Copel.) R.M.Tryon
[syn. Cyathea tripinnata Copel.]

Referring to Cyathea tripinnata, Holttum (1935) noted that the base of the stipe is shortly thorny; and Large & Braggins (2004) note that the stipe is sharply spiny.



FERNS – DENNSTAEDTIACEAE

(Bracken family)

 



Dennstaedtia scandens (Blume) T.Moore
[syn. Dicksonia scandens Blume]

Christensen (1943) described this fern as a liana of indefinite growth, climbing by aid of the sharp, hooked spines, which are most numerous on the secondary rachises.



Hypolepis pallida (Blume) Hook.
[syns Hypolepis punctata Bedd., Cheilanthes pallida Blume]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Hypolepis punctata (Thunb.) Mett.
[syns Dryopteris punctata (Thunb.) C.Chr., Polypodium punctatum Thunb.]
Downy Ground Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Hypolepis resistens (Kunze) Hook.
[syns Hypolepis glandulifera Brownsey & Chinnock, Cheilanthes resistens Kunze]
Downy Ground Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn
[syns Asplenium aquilinum (L.) Bernh., Filix-foemina aquilina (L.) Farw., Pteris aquilina L., etc.]
Bracken, Brake, Common Bracken, Eagle Fern, Female Fern, Southern Bracken, Adlerfarn

Describing the "Vertues" of the "Brak or common Ferne", Parkinson (1640) wrote:

: the rootes being bruised and boyled in oyle or Hogs grease, maketh an oyntment very profitable to heale wounds punctures or prickes in any part; and the powder of them used in fowle Vlcers, drieth up their malignant moisture, and causeth their speedier healing :

Benjamin & Manickam (2007) and Tripathi et al. (2017) similarly noted that the rhizome boiled in oil and made into an ointment is used for healing wounds. Referring to Pteris aquilina in a treatise on the medicinal ferns of India, Caius (1935/6) repeated the words of Parkinson without citing their source, and also incorrectly (according to Plants of the World Online) described this taxon as being very common in the Himalayas, the Khasia Hills, Ceylon, the Malay Peninsula, and eastwards to Australia and New Zealand. Caius (1935/6) was probably referring to the hairy bracken: Pteridium revolutum (Blume) Nakai (syns Pteridium aquilinum subsp. wightianum (J.Agardh) W.C.Shieh, Pteris excelsa Blume).

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – DICKSONIACEAE

(Tree Fern family)

 



Lophosoria quadripinnata (J.F.Gmel.) C.Chr.
[syns Alsophila pruinata Kaulf., Alsophila quadripinnata (J.F.Gmel.) C.Chr., Polypodium glaucum Sw., Polypodium quadripinnatum J.F.Gmel., etc.]
Diamondleaf Fern

Whilst some authorities would place the genus Lophosoria C.Presl. in the family Cyatheaceae (see Christenhusz & Chase 2014, Plants of the World Online), the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (PPG I 2016) concluded that it should be placed in the Dicksoniaceae.

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – DRYOPTERIDACEAE

(Wood Fern family)

 



Bolbitis costata (C.Presl) Ching
[syns Acrostichum costatum (C.Presl) Wall. ex Hook., Campium costatum C.Presl, Gymnopteris costata (C.Presl) Bedd., Leptochilus costatus (C.Presl) C.Chr.]

Formerly placed in the Lomariopsidaceae (Willis 1973), some authorities would now place the genus Bolbitis Schott in the family Polypodiaceae (see Christenhusz & Chase 2014, Plants of the World Online). However, the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (PPG I 2016) concluded that it should be placed in the Dryopteridaceae.

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Cyrtomium falcatum (L.f.) C.Presl
[syns Aspidium falcatum (L.f.) Sw., Dryopteris falcata (L.f.) Kuntze, Polypodium falcatum L.f.]
House Holly Fern, Japanese Holly Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Dryopteris Adans.
Wood Fern

Whilst some authorities would place the genus in the Polypodiaceae (see Christenhusz & Chase 2014, Stolze 1981), the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (PPG I 2016) concluded that the genus should be placed in the Dryopteridaceae.



Dryopteris cochleata (D.Don) C.Chr.
[syns Arthrobotrys macrocarpus Wall., Aspidium cochleatum (D.Don) Spreng., Dryopteris heleopteroides Christ, Nephrodium cochleatum D.Don]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai
[syn. Dryopteris buschiana Formin]
Crown Wood Fern, Thick-Stemmed Wood Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Dryopteris erythrosora (D.C.Eaton) Kuntze
[syn. Aspidium erythrosorum D.C.Eaton]
Autumn Fern, Buckler Fern, Japanese Shield Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott
[syns Aspidium filix-mas (L.) Sw., Polypodium filix-mas L., etc.]
Male Fern

Remington et al. (1918), citing earlier literature, noted that the crude drug known as Aspidium or Male Fern (formerly a commonly used vermifuge, but which can produce serious and even fatal poisoning) has been recommended as a local treatment in eczema and acne. Caius (1935/6) also recorded this use.

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Dryopteris nigropaleacea (Fraser-Jenk.) Fraser-Jenk.
[syns Dryopteris juxtaposita subsp. nigropaleacea (Fraser-Jenk.) Khullar, Dryopteris pallida subsp. nigropaleacea Fraser-Jenk.]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Elaphoglossum herminieri (Bory & Fée) T.Moore
[syn. Acrostichum herminieri Bory & Fée]
Drooping Tonguefern, Herminier's Elephant's-Ear Fern

Whilst some authorities would place the genus Elaphoglossum Schott ex J.Sm. in the family Polypodiaceae (see Christenhusz & Chase 2014, Plants of the World Online), and others have placed this genus in the Lomariopsidaceae (Brummitt 1992), the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (PPG I 2016) concluded that it should be placed in the Dryopteridaceae.

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Pleocnemia irregularis (C.Presl) Holttum
[syns Arcypteris irregularis (C.Presl) Ching, Aspidium irregulare (C.Presl) C.Chr., Polypodium irregulare C.Presl, Tectaria irregularis (C.Presl) Copel., etc.]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Polystichum lonchitis (L.) Roth
[syns Aspidium lonchitis (L.) Sw., Dryopteris lonchitis (L.) Kuntze, Polypodium lonchitis L.]
Holly Fern, Northern Hollyfern, Lanzen-Schildfarn

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Polystichum munitum (Kaulf.) C.Presl
[syns Aspidium munitum Kaulf., Dryopteris munita Kuntze, etc.]
Sword Fern, Western Sword Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Polystichum nepalense (Spreng.) C.Chr.
[syns Aspidium nepalense Spreng, Polystichum atroviridissimum Hayata, Polystichum marginatum Schott]
Nepal Holly Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Polystichum squarrosum (D.Don) Fée
[syns Aspidium rufobarbatum Wall., Aspidium squarrosum D.Don, Polypodium squarrosum (D.Don) Roxb., Polystichum brachypterum (Kunze) Ching, Polystichum rufobarbatum (Wall. ex C.B.Clarke) Schott ex Diels]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Rumohra adiantiformis (G.Forst.) Ching
[syns Arachniodes adiantiformis — of no botanical standing, Aspidium adiantiforme Cheeseman, Aspidium cunninghamianum Colenso, Dryopteris adiantiformis (G.Forst.) Kuntze, Polypodium adiantiforme G.Forst., Polystichum adiantiforme (G.Forst.) J.Sm., Rumohra aspidioides Raddi, etc.]
Iron Fern, Leather Fern, Leatherleaf Fern, Seven-Weeks Fern, Lederfarn

Whilst some authorities would place the genus in the Polypodiaceae (see Christenhusz & Chase 2014, Stolze 1981), and others have placed it variously in the Aspidiaceae, Davalliaceae, and Pteridaceae, the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (PPG I 2016) concluded that the genus should be placed in the Dryopteridaceae.

This fern has in recent years become popular in floristry because of its long vase life. Regular contact with the leatherleaf fern induced an allergic contact dermatitis of the palms and fingers in a 21-year old female florist, which was confirmed by patch testing. Because of the recurrence and severity of the dermatitis, the patient had to change her job. Five fractions of a chromatographically separated extract of the fern were tested on sensitised guinea-pigs and on the patient. Only the first fraction gave a positive patch test response. Control tests on 10 unaffected persons were negative. Further fractionation produced completely purified colourless crystals of the contact allergen (Hausen & Schulz 1978). Schmalle et al. (1980) later reported the structural characterisation of a crystalline substance "found among the allergenic fraction", identifying it as the pentacyclic triterpene 9(11)-fernene, this seemingly being the allergen to which the patient reacted. Hausen & Schulz (1978) noted that the sensitiser could only be detected during sporogenesis of the fern, being found in the leaves, in the sporangia, and in the spores themselves.

[Fern-9(11)-ene]

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



HORSETAILS – EQUISETACEAE

(Horsetail family)

 

This family consists of a single genus, Equisetum L., comprising 15 species, which are of cosmopolitan distribution except in Australasia (PPG I 2016, Mabberley 2017).



Equisetum L.
[syn. Hippochaete Milde]
Horsetails

Parkinson (1640), who described several kinds of horsetail, segregating them into rough and smooth, and leaved and bare sorts, recorded that:

Country housewives doe use any of these rough sorts that are next to hand to scoure both their woodden, peuter and brasse vessels […] [see also Equisetum hyemale L. below].

He also noted that

[Horsetaile] is very powerfull to stanch bleedings wheresoever, eyther inward or outward, the juice or decoction thereof being drunke, or the juice, decoction or distilled water applyed outwardly […] and healeth also […] all other sorts of foule moist and running ulcers, and soone sodereth together [= to reunite (tissues or bones)] the toppes of greene wounds […] the juice or distilled water being warmed, and hot inflammations pustules or red wheals and other such eruptions in the skin, being bathed therewith doth helpe them […]

Several investigators have reported the presence of nicotine and other alkaloids in Equisetum species (see, for example, Phillipson & Melville 1960, Eugster 1975). A study of 68 samples derived from all of the 15 Equisetum species occurring worldwide demonstrated the presence of nicotine in at least one sample from every species. However, the level present in any particular species was found to vary considerably between samples (Tipke et al. 2019).

[L-Nicotine]

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Equisetum arvense L.
[syn. Equisetum calderi B.Boivin]
Bottlebrush, Common Horsetail, Field Horsetail, Mare's Tail, Shavegrass, Acker-Schachtelhalm

Under the heading Equisetum arvense, Wren (1975) refers to the styptic and vulnerary properties of unspecified species of horse-tail as originally described by Dioscorides and Galen (see Gunther 1959, Gerarde 1636, Parkinson 1640, and Culpeper 1652). Flück & Jaspersen-Schib (1976) and Stuart (1979) also acknowledge these properties. See Equisetum L. above.

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Equisetum bogotense Kunth
[syn. Equisetum rinihuense G.Kunkel]
Andean Horsetail

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Equisetum fluviatile L.
[syn. Equisetum limosum L.]
Swamp Horsetail, Water Horsetail, Teich-Schachtelhalm

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Equisetum giganteum L.
[syns Equisetum martii Milde, Hippochaete gigantea (L.) Holub]
Southern Giant Horsetail

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Equisetum hyemale L.
[syn. Hippochaete hyemalis (L.) Milde ex Bruhin]
Common Scouring Rush, Dutch Rush, Horsetail, Pewterwort, Rough Horsetail, Scouring-Rush Horsetail, Snake Grass, Winter Scouring Rush, Prêle d'Hiver, Winter-Schachtelhalm

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Equisetum palustre L.
Marsh Horsetail, Prêle des Marais, Duwock, Sumpf-Schachtelhalm

The principal alkaloids found in this species are palustrine and palustridiene (Eugster 1975, Tipke et al. 2019, Müller et al. 2020).

[Palustrine; Palustridiene]

A rash with systemic symptoms in a patient who had cleaned pewter dishes with a washing liquid prepared from the common scouring rush (Equisetum hyemale L.) was attributed to skin contact with, and percutaneous absorption of equisetin [= palustrine]. See Equisetum hyemale L. above.

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Equisetum ramosissimum Desf.
[syn. Hippochaete ramosissima (Desf.) Milde ex Bruhin]
Branched Horsetail, Branched Scouring Rush, Frail Horsetail, Horsetail, Scouring Rush, Ästiger Schachtelhalm

Christenhusz et al. (2019) and Plants of the World Online record that this taxon occurs naturally in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, the Far East, and in South East Asia, and that two varieties are recognised:

Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. var. ramosissimum
[syns Equisetum campanulatum Poir., Equisetum multiforme Vaucher]
Equisetum ramosissimum var. huegelii (Milde) Christenh. & Husby
[syns Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Vaucher, Equisetum huegelii Milde, Equisetum ramosissimum subsp. debile (Roxb. ex Vaucher) Hauke, Hippochaete debilis (Roxb. ex Vaucher) Holub]

According to Darnaedi, Wulijarni-Soetjipto & de Winter in de Winter & Amoroso (2003), only Equisetum ramosissimum subsp. debile is found in South East Asia, but in the area of geographical overlap there is an extensive intergradation between the two subspecies/varieties, fertile, intermediate hybrids of the two subspecies/varieties having been recorded in India, southern China, and the Ryukyu Islands.

Behl et al. (1966) noted that Equisetum debile is irritating to the skin.

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Equisetum telmateia Ehrh.
[syn. Equisetum majus Garsault]
Great Horsetail, Northern Giant Horsetail, Variegated Horsetail, Riesen-Schachtelhalm, Grande Prêle, Grande Queue-de-Cheval

[Information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – GLEICHENIACEAE

(Forking Fern family)

 



Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.f.) Underw.
[syns Gleichenia linearis (Burm.f.) C.B.Clarke, Mertensia linearis (Burm.f.) Fritsch, Polypodium lineare Burm.f.]
Coral Fern, False Staghorn Fern, Old World Forkedfern, Savannah Fern, Scrambling Fern, True Branching Fern, Uluhe

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Dicranopteris pedata (Houtt.) Nakaike
[syns Dicranopteris dichotoma (Thunb.) Bernh., Gleichenia dichotoma (Willd.) Hook., Mertensia dichotoma Willd., Polypodium pedatum Houtt.]
Dichotomy Forked Fern, Forked Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – HYPODEMATIACEAE

(Hypodematium family)

 



Hypodematium crenatum (Forssk.) Kuhn & Decken
[syns Aspidium crenatum (Forssk.) Kuhn, Dryopteris crenata (Forssk.) Kuntze, Polypodium crenatum Forssk.]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Leucostegia truncata (D.Don) Fraser-Jenk.
[syns Davallia immersa Wall. ex Hook., Davallia truncata D.Don, Humata immersa (Wall. ex Hook.) Mett., Leucostegia immersa (Wall. ex Hook.) C.Presl]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – LINDSAEACEAE

(Lace Fern or Screw Fern family)

 



Odontosoria chinensis (L.) J.Sm. subsp. chinensis
[syns Adiantum chusanum L., Odontosoria chusana (L.) Masam., Stenoloma chusanum (L.) Ching, Trichomanes chinense L., etc.]
Lace Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – LOMARIOPSIDACEAE

(Lemon Button Fern family)

 



Cyclopeltis semicordata (Sw.) J.Sm.
[syns Aspidium semicordatum (Sw.) Sw., Polypodium semicordatum Sw., Polystichum semicordatum (Sw.) T.Moore]
Lime Fern

Whilst some authorities would place the genus Cyclopeltis J.Sm. in the family Polypodiaceae (see Christenhusz & Chase 2014, Plants of the World Online), and others have placed this genus in the Aspidiaceae (Willis 1973), Aspleniaceae (Mabberley 1987), Dryopteridaceae (Brummitt 1992), or Tectariaceae (Lu & Li 2006), the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (PPG I 2016) concluded that it should be placed in the Lomariopsidaceae.

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



LYCOPHYTES – LYCOPODIACEAE

(Clubmoss family)

 



Diphasiastrum complanatum (L.) Holub
[syn. Lycopodium complanatum L.]
Complanate Clubmoss, Flat Clubmoss, Ground Cedar, Ground Pine, Northern Running-Pine, Gewöhnlicher Flachbärlapp

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Huperzia selago (L.) Bernh. ex Schrank & Mart.
[syns Lycopodium selago L., Lycopodium densum Lam., Urostachys selago (L.) Herter]
Fir Clubmoss, Northern Firmoss, Fir Selago, Tannenbärlapp

Nwosu (2002), who carried out an ethnobotanical survey of pteridophytes in Southern Nigeria, noted that the spores and root powder of a clubmoss identified as Lycopodium selago, mixed with palm kernel oil (from Elaeis guineensis Jacq., fam. Palmae), is applied externally to treat eczema and cuts. However, according to Plants of the World Online, this taxon has a circumpolar distribution in temperate and boreal regions in both hemispheres and has not been reported from Nigeria / West Africa. Therefore, it is possible that Nwosu misidentified the plant material.



Huperzia serrata (Thunb.) Trevis.
[syns Lycopodium serratum Thunb., Urostachys serratus (Thunb.) Herter]
Chinese Clubmoss, Chinese Firmoss, Serrate Clubmoss, Toothed Clubmoss

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lycopodiastrum casuarinoides (Spring) Holub ex R.D.Dixit
[syns Diphasium casuarinoides (Spring) J.P.Mandal & U.Sen, Lycopodium casuarinoides Spring]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lycopodium clavatum L.
[syns Lepidotis clavata (L.) P.Beauv., Lycopodium ciliatum (P.Beauv.) Sw., Lycopodium inflexum (P.Beauv.) Sw., etc.]
Common Clubmoss, Ground Pine, Running Clubmoss, Snake Moss, Stag's-Horn Clubmoss

The spores provide the crude drug known as Semen Lycopodii, Pulvis Lycopodii, or Lycopodium. It is a light yellow, very mobile powder that has also been known as "vegetable sulphur". It was formerly used as an absorbent application to excoriated surfaces, especially those which occur in the folds of the skin in infants (Remington et al. 1918). Felter (1922) added intertrigo, herpes, erysipelas, dermatitis, eczema, and ulcers to the list of indications for use, noting also that because lycopodium possesses moisture repellant qualities it has been used in preparing pills of hygroscopic chemicals, to facilitate the manipulation of pill masses, and to keep pills from adhering to each other.

In traditional Chinese medicine, the crude drug known as shen jin cao (伸筋草) or Herba Lycopodii is the dried whole plant with roots of Lycopodium clavatum (Huang 1993), but also possibly of (see, for example, the online 中藥詞典 Chinese Herb Dictionary 2011 and Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015):

Dendrolycopodium obscurum (L.) A.Haines — Eastern Tree Clubmoss, Flat-Branch Tree Clubmoss, Ground Pine, Princess Pine
[syn. Lycopodium obscurum L.]
Lycopodium japonicum Thunb. — Japanese Clubmoss
[syns Lycopodium centrochinense Ching, Lycopodium pseudoclavatum Ching, Lycopodium simulans Ching & H.S.Kung, Stachygynandrum japonicum (Thunb.) P.Beauv.]
Palhinhaea cernua (L.) Vasc. & Franco — Arching Clubmoss, Nodding Clubmoss, Staghorn Clubmoss
[syns Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic.Serm., Lycopodium cernuum L.]

In a patch test study of 27 crude drugs commonly used in Chinese topical medicaments in patients with contact dermatitis related to the use of these medicaments, a 10% ethanol extract of Herba Lycopodii produced a positive patch test reaction in one of 27 patients tested (Chen et al. 2003).

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Palhinhaea cernua (L.) Vasc. & Franco
[syns Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic.Serm., Lycopodium cernuum L.]
Arching Clubmoss, Nodding Clubmoss, Staghorn Clubmoss

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Phlegmariurus carinatus (Desv. ex Poir.) Ching
[syns Huperzia carinata (Desv. ex Poir.) Trevis., Lycopodium carinatum Desv. ex Poir., Lycopodium struthioloides C.Presl, Selaginella struthioloides (C.Presl) Underw.]
Keeled Clubmoss, Keeled Tassel-Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – LYGODIACEAE

(Climbing Fern family)

 



Lygodium Sw.
Climbing Ferns

Comprising about 40 species, the genus Lygodium has been placed by the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (PPG I 2016) in its own family, namely the Lygodiaceae. Some authorities place the genus in the Schizaeaceae.

Lygodium japonicum (Thunb.) Sw. and Lygodium palmatum (Bernh.) Sw. are grown as cool greenhouse pot plants for their decorative foliage (Hunt 1968/70).



Lygodium circinnatum (Burm.f.) Sw.
[syns Lygodium conforme C.Chr., Ophioglossum pedatum Burm.f., Hydroglossum pedatum (Burm.f.) Willd., etc.]
Red Finger Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lygodium flexuosum (L.) Sw.
[syns Ophioglossum flexuosum L., Hydroglossum flexuosum (L.) Willd., etc.]
Flexuose Climbing Fern, Maidenhair Creeper

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lygodium japonicum (Thunb.) Sw.
[syns Lygodium microstachyum Desv., Ophioglossum japonicum Thunb.]
Japanese Climbing Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R.Br.
[syns Ophioglossum filiforme Roxb., Ugena microphylla Cav.]
Climbing Maidenhair Fern, Old World Climbing Fern, Small-Leaf Climbing Fern, Snake Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lygodium palmatum (Bernh.) Sw.
[syns Gisopteris palmata Bernh., Hydroglossum palmatum (Bernh.) Willd.]
American Climbing Fern, American Palm Fern, Angels' Fingers, Hartford Fern, Windsor Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lygodium salicifolium C.Presl
[syn. Lygodium kingii Copel.]
Willow-Leaved Climbing Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – MARATTIACEAE

(Giant Fern family)

 



Angiopteris crassipes Wall. ex C.Presl
[syns Angiopteris arnottiana Miq., Angiopteris hookeriana de Vriese, Angiopteris manniana Rosenst.]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Angiopteris evecta (G.Forst.) Hoffm.
[syns Angiopteris longifolia Grev. & Hook., Angiopteris miqueliana de Vriese, Polypodium evectum G.Forst., etc.]
King Fern, Giant Fern, Elephant Fern, Madagascar Tree Fern, Mule's Foot Fern, Oriental Vessel Fern, Fougère Royale

[Information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – MARSILEACEAE

(Water Clover family)

 



Marsilea minuta L.
[syns Marsilea diffusa Lepr. ex A.Braun, Lemma minuta (L.) Desr.]
Dwarf Water Clover, Pepperwort

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Marsilea quadrifolia L.
[syns Lemma quadrifolia (L.) Desr., Marsilea europaea Desv., Pteris quadrifoliata L.]
European Water-Clover, European Pepperwort

[Information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – NEPHROLEPIDACEAE

(Sword Fern family)

 



Nephrolepis Schott
Ladder Ferns, Sword Ferns

The genus comprises about 30 species of ferns that occur naturally in the tropics and sub-tropics. Whilst some authorities would place the genus in the Polypodiaceae (see Christenhusz & Chase 2014) and others have placed it variously in the Davalliaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Lomariopsidaceae, or Oleandraceae, the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (PPG I 2016) concluded that the genus comprises a monophyletic group that should be placed in its own family, namely the Nephrolepidaceae.

Several species are grown as house plants for their decorative foliage (Hunt 1968/70).



Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott
[syns Aspidium biserratum Sw., Nephrodium biserratum (Sw.) C.Presl, Polypodium nephrolepioides Christ, etc.]
Broad Sword Fern, Giant Sword Fern, Macho Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C.Presl
[syns Aspidium cordifolium Sw., Nephrolepis tuberosa (Bory ex Willd.) C.Presl, Polypodium cordifolium L., etc.]
Erect Sword Fern, Fishbone Fern, Ladder Fern, Narrow Sword Fern, Tuberous Sword Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) Schott
[syns Aspidium exaltatum (L.) Sw., Polypodium exaltatum L.]
Boston Fern, Fishbone Fern, Sword Fern, Tuber Ladder Fern

Two non-atopic fern nursery workers handling apical meristem cuttings from various Nephrolepis exaltata cultivars developed pruritic skin lesions on the fingertips, showing erythema, vesicles, scaling and fissures, combined with periungual swelling, usually with rapid relief of symptoms during weekends and holidays. Patch test results with crushed leaves from these ferns were positive at 24h and 48h. One of the patients also reacted to the fern spores from the cultivar ‘Teddy Junior’. No reactions were observed with extracts from young leaves prepared with water, ethanol, diethyl ether, or acetone. No reactions were observed in 6 other workers doing exactly the same work, nor in 20 healthy volunteers (Stoof & Bruynzeel 1989). A similar case of occupational contact allergy to the cultivar ‘Bostoniensis’ in a nursery worker was reported by Andersen & Paulsen (2016). This patient reacted on patch testing to an ethanol/water extract of the leaves and stems, but not to extracts prepared from other plant species to which he may have been occupationally exposed.



Nephrolepis hirsutula (G.Forst.) C.Presl
[syns Aspidium hirsutulum (G.Forst.) Sw., Polypodium ferrugineum Roxb., Polystichum hirsutulum (G.Forst.) Bernh., etc.]
Sword Fern, Rough Sword Fern, Scaly Sword Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – ONOCLEACEAE

(Sensitive Fern family)

 



Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Tod.
[syns Onoclea struthiopteris (L.) Roth, Osmunda struthiopteris L.]
Ostrich Fern, Straußenfarn, Straußfarn

[Information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – OPHIOGLOSSACEAE

(Adder's-Tongue, Grapefern, or Moonwort family)

 



Botrychium lanuginosum Wall. ex Hook. & Grev.
[syns Botrypus lanuginosus (Hook. & Grev.) Holub, Japanobotrychium lanuginosum (Wall. ex Hook. & Grev.) M.Nishida ex Tagawa, Japanobotrychum arisanense Masam., Japanobotrychum lanuginosum (Wall. ex Hook. & Grev.) M.Nishida ex Tagawa]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Botrychium lunaria (L.) Sw.
[syn. Osmunda lunaria L.]
Common Moonwort

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw.
[syns Botrypus virginianus (L.) Michx., Osmunda virginiana L.]
Common Grape Fern, Rattlesnake Fern, Virginia Grape Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Ophioderma pendulum (L.) C.Presl
[syns Ophioglossum furcatum J.Sm., Ophioglossum pendulum L.]
Old World Adderstongue

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Ophioglossum gramineum Willd.
[syns Ophioglossum gregarium Christ, Ophioglossum prantlii C.Chr., Ophioglossum vulgatum var. gramineum (Willd.) Hook.f.]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Ophioglossum reticulatum L.
[syns Ophioglossum ovatum Bory, Ophioglossum pedunculatum Desv. & Nakai, Ophioglossum vulgatum var. reticulatum (L.) D.C.Eaton]
Netted Adder's Tongue

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Ophioglossum vulgatum L.
Serpent's Tongue, Adder's Tongue, Southern Adder's Tongue, English Adder's Tongue, Common Tongue Fern

Gerarde (1636) wrote:

The leaues of Adders tongue stamped in a stone morter, and boyled in Oile Oliue vnto the consumption of the juyce, and vntill the herbes be dry and parched, and then strained, will yeeld a most excellent greene oyle, or rather a balsame for greene wounds, comparable to oile of S Iohns wort, if it do not farre surpasse it by many degrees.

Parkinson (1640) and Culpeper (1652) described the same preparation, but specified the use of "oyle Omphacine, or of unripe Ollives". This preparation became known as "green oil of Charity" (Pratt 1855), with essentially the same reference to its popularity in England as a vulnerary and remedy for wounds being made by numerous subsequent authors including Grieve (1931), Kirtikar & Basu (1935), Caius (1935/6), and Cao et al. (2017).

According to Phillips (1917), and repeated by Caius (1935/6) and by Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk (1962), a warm decoction of the rhizome of Ophioglossum vulgatum has been used by the Sotho [= Basotho of Lesotho / Southern Africa] as a lotion to bathe boils. However, according to Plants of the World Online, although widely distributed in northern temperate regions and elsewhere, this taxon has not been reported from Lesotho / South Africa. Therefore, it is possible that Phillips misidentified the plant material. He may have mistaken the fern for the not dissimilar Ophioglossum polyphyllum A.Braun ex Seub. (syns Ophioglossum capense Schltdl., Ophioglossum vulgatum var. polyphyllum (A.Braun ex Seub.) Milde), the large adder's tongue.

According to Wren (1975), the fresh leaves are used as a poultice in scrofulous ulcers [= scrofuloderma ?] and tumours, together with an infusion taken internally in wineglassful doses. Interestingly, Wren (1975) uses exactly the same form of words to describe the use of the botanically unrelated Erythronium americanum Ker Gawl. (fam. Liliaceae) — the American adder's tongue. Wren (1975) additionally records that the plant boiled in oil or fat is said to be a panacea for wounds and to reduce inflammation, a use also acknowledged by Stuart (1979).

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Sceptridium schaffneri (Underw.) Lyon
[syns Botrychium pusillum Underw., Botrychium schaffneri Underw.]
Schaffner's Grape Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Sceptridium ternatum (Thunb.) Lyon
[syns Botrychium ternatum (Thunb.) Sw., Osmunda ternata Thunb.]
Ternate Grape Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – OSMUNDACEAE

(Royal Fern family)

 



Osmunda claytoniana L.
[syn. Claytosmunda claytoniana (L.) Metzgar & Rouhan subsp. claytoniana]
Clayton's Fern, Interrupted Fern, Osmonde de Clayton

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Osmunda regalis L.
[syns. Aphyllocalpa regalis (L.) Cav., Struthiopteris regalis (L.) Bernh.]
Flowering Fern, Osmond Royal, Royal Fern, Water Fern, Fougère Royale, Königsfarn

[Information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – POLYPODIACEAE

(Polypody family)

 



Bosmania membranacea (D.Don) Testo
[syns Lepidomicrosorium hymenodes (Kunze) L.Shi & X.C.Zhang, Microsorum hymenodes (Kunze) Ching, Microsorum membranaceum (D.Don) Ching, Polypodium membranaceum D.Don]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Davallodes pulchra (D.Don) M.Kato & Tsutsumi
[syns Araiostegia imbricata Ching, Araiostegia pseudocystopteris (Kunze) Copel., Araiostegia pulchra (D.Don) Copel., Davallia pulchra D.Don, etc.]

The Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (PPG I 2016) prefer to refer to this taxon as Davallia pulchra and place the genus in the family Davalliaceae.

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Dendroconche ampla (F.Muell. ex Benth.) Testo, Sundue, & A.R.Field
[syns Colysis ampla (F.Muell. ex Benth.) Copel., Grammitis ampla F.Muell. ex Benth., Leptochilus amplus (F.Muell. ex Benth.) Noot.]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Drynaria (Bory) J.Sm.
[syns Aglaomorpha Schott, Psygmium K.B.Presl, etc.]

Some authorities place this genus in the family Drynariaceae. The Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (PPG I 2016) provided a new circumscription for the genus Aglaomorpha Schott, encompassing 50 species, that included taxa previously recognised as Drynaria species. However, the General Committee for Botanical Nomenclature voted to conserve the name Drynaria (Wilson 2016).

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Drynaria propinqua (Wall. ex Mett.) J.Sm. ex Bedd.
[syns Aglaomorpha propinqua (Wall. ex Mett.) Hovenkamp & S.Linds., Phymatodes propinqua (Wall. ex Mett.) C.Presl, Polypodium propinquum Wall. ex Mett.]
Rentep Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J.Sm.
[syns Aglaomorpha quercifolia (L.) Hovenkamp & S.Linds., Phymatodes quercifolia (L.) C.Presl, Polypodium quercifolium L., etc.]
Oakleaf Fern, Oakleaf Basket Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Drynaria sparsisora (Desv.) T.Moore
[syns Aglaomorpha sparsisora (Desv.) Hovenkamp & S.Linds., Polypodium linnei Bory, Polypodium sparsisorum Desv.]
Basket Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Goniophlebium fieldingianum (Kunze ex Mett.) T.Moore
[syns Goniophlebium microrhizoma (C.B.Clarke ex Baker) Bedd., Metapolypodium microrhizoma (C.B.Clarke ex Baker) S.G.Lu & L.H.Yang, Polypodiodes microrhizoma (C.B.Clarke) Ching, Polypodium fieldingianum Kunze ex Mett., Polypodium microrhizoma C.B. Clarke ex Baker]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lecanopteris Reinw.
[syns Myrmecophila Christ ex Nakai, Myrmecopteris Pic.Serm.]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lecanopteris lomarioides (Kunze ex Mett.) Copel.
[syns Myrmecopteris lomarioides (Kunze ex Mett.) Pic.Serm., Pleopeltis lomarioides (Kunze ex Mett.) T.Moore, Polypodium lomarioides Kunze ex Mett.]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lecanopteris sinuosa (Wall. ex Hook.) Copel.
[syns Myrmecopteris sinuosa (Wall. ex Hook.) Pic.Serm., Phymatodes sinuosa (Wall. ex Hook.) J.Sm., Pleopeltis sinuosa (Wall. ex Hook.) Bedd., Polypodium sinuosum Wall. ex Hook.]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lemmaphyllum microphyllum C.Presl
[syns Drymoglossum microphyllum (C.Presl) C.Chr., Lemmaphyllum squamosum C.Chr.]
Green Penny Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lepisorus bicolor (Takeda) Ching
[syns Lepisorus kashyapii (Mehra) Mehra, Pleopeltis bicolor (Takeda) Sledge, Pleopeltis kashyapii (Mehra) Alston & Bonner, Polypodium excavatum var. bicolor Takeda]
Hardy Ribbon Fern, Sechuan Ribbon Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lepisorus clathratus (C.B.Clarke) Ching
[syns Lepisorus variabilis Ching & S.K.Wu, Platygyria variabilis Ching & S.K.Wu, Pleopeltis clathrata (C.B.Clarke) Bedd., Polypodium clathratum C.B.Clarke, etc.]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lepisorus ensatus (Thunb.) C.F.Zhao, R.Wei & X.C.Zhang
[syns Microsorum ensatum (Thunb.) H.Itô, Neocheiropteris ensata (Thunb.) Ching, Neolepisorus ensatus (Thunb.) Ching, Polypodium ensatum Thunb.]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lepisorus fortunei (T.Moore) C.M.Kuo
[syns Drynaria fortunei T.Moore, Microsorum fortunei (T.Moore) Ching, Neocheiropteris fortunei (T.Moore) Bosman ex Fraser-Jenk., Pariyar & Kandel, Neolepisorus fortunei (T.Moore) Li Wang]
Fortune's Ribbon Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lepisorus longifolius (Blume) Holttum
[syns Grammitis longifolia Blume, Paragramma longifolia (Blume) T.Moore, Polypodium revolutum (J.Sm.) C.Chr.]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lepisorus thunbergianus (Kaulf.) Ching
[syns Lepisorus angustus Ching, Pleopeltis thunbergiana Kaulf., Polypodium thunbergianum (Kaulf.) C.Chr., etc.]
Weeping Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Microgramma C.Presl
[syn. Solanopteris Copel.]
Potato Ferns, Snake Ferns, Vine Ferns

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Microgramma bifrons (Hook.) Lellinger
[syns Polypodium bifrons Hook., Solanopteris bifrons (Hook.) Copel.]
Potato Fern

The original collection of the fern that W.J. Hooker described and named Polypodium bifrons was made by a plant collector named William (Guilielmo) Jameson in 1831 in Ecuador (Ule 1906). Gómez (1977) noted Jameson's observation that the fern was "inhabited by very obnoxious ants".



Microgramma brunei (Wercklé ex Christ) Lellinger
[syns Polypodium brunei Wercklé ex Christ, Solanopteris brunei (Wercklé ex Christ) W.H.Wagner]
Potato Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Microgramma mauritiana (Willd.) Tardieu
[syns Microgramma owariensis (Desv.) Alston, Polypodium mauritianum Willd., Polypodium owariense Desv.]
Rockrunner

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Microgramma megalophylla (Desv.) de la Sota
[syns Polypodium megalophyllum Desv., Polypodium schomburgkii Hook.]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Microsorum cuspidatum (D.Don) Tagawa
[syns Phymatodes cuspidata (D.Don) J.Sm., Phymatosorus cuspidatus (D.Don) Pic.Serm., Phymatosorus lucidus (Roxb.) Pic.Serm., Polypodium cuspidatum D.Don., Polypodium leiorhizum Wall.]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Microsorum grossum (Langsd. & Fisch.) S.B.Andrews
[syns Phymatosorus grossus (Langsd. & Fisch.) Brownlie, Polypodium grossum Langsd. & Fisch.]
Maile-Scented Fern, Musk Fern, Wart Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Microsorum punctatum (L.) Copel.
[syns Acrostichum punctatum L., Polypodium polycarpon Sw., Polypodium punctatum (L.) Sw., etc.]
Climbing Bird's Nest Fern, Elkhorn Fern, Fishtail Fern, Strapleaf Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Microsorum rubidum (J.Sm.) Copel.
[syns Drynaria rubida J.Sm., Leptochilus longissimus (Blume) L.Y.Kuo, Phymatosorus longissimus (Blume) Pic.Serm., Polypodium longissimum Blume, Polypodium rubidum (J.Sm.) Kunze]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Phlebodium (R.Br.) J.Sm.
Golden Polypodies

Some authorities (see Mabberley 2017 and Stolze 1981) consider Phlebodium (R.Br.) J.Sm. to be a subgenus within Polypodium L. Others (see PPG I 2016, Germplasm Resources Information Network, and Plants of the World Online) accept the genus Phlebodium and recognise three or four species.

Evans (1963) found typical polypodioid diploid and tetraploid chromosome counts of n=37 and n=74 for Phlebodium aureum but noted also that earlier studies had shown considerable variation in chromosome number through 16, c. 32, 34-36, 60-70 and 76. According to Mickel & Smith (2004), later repeated by Gattuso et al. (2008), Tejero-Díez et al. (2009), and the Flora of North America, Phlebodium aureum is a fertile tetraploid that arose through allopolyploidy following hybridisation between Phlebodium pseudoaureum, the false golden polypody, which is widespread in Central America and South America, and Phlebodium decumanum, the creeping golden polypody, a widespread species in tropical America. All three species are referred to locally as "calaguala" or "calahuala". Possible botanical mis-identification should be suspected where reliance is placed on the common name calaguala because this Spanish name, which translates as "medicinal fern", has been applied to fern species that are both closely- and distantly-related to Phlebodium ranging geographically from the Peruvian Andes to California and Florida. Indeed, it is likely that the three Phlebodium species are considered interchangable by those who collect or grow these ferns for medicinal or cosmetic use (Cáceres & Cruz 2018). Stolze (1981) annotates several species of Polypodium with the common name calaguala:

Polypodium angustifolium Sw. var. angustifolium [= Campyloneurum angustifolium (Sw.) Fée]
Polypodium angustum (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Liebm. [= Pleopeltis angusta Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.]
Polypodium aureum L. [= Phlebodium aureum (L.) J.Sm.]
Polypodium dissimile L. [= Serpocaulon dissimile (L.) A.R.Sm.]
Polypodium hispidulum Bartlett
Polypodium plectolepis (Fée) Hook. [= Polypodium echinolepis Fée] 

and a number of other ferns have the species name calaguala:

Elaphoglossum huacsaro (Ruiz) Christ [syns Acrostichum calaguala Klotzsch, Elaphoglossum calaguala T.Moore]
Serpocaulon falcaria (Kunze) A.R.Sm. [syn. Goniophlebium calaguala Fée]
Campyloneurum densifolium (Hieron.) Lellinger [syn. Polypodium calaguala Ruiz] 


Phlebodium areolatum (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) J.Sm.
[syns Phlebodium araneosum (M.Martens & Galeotti) Mickel & Beitel, Phlebodium pseudoaureum (Cav.) Lellinger, Polypodium areolatum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., Polypodium pseudoaureum Cav., etc.]
Calaguala, False Golden Polypody

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Phlebodium aureum (L.) J.Sm.
[syns Chrysopteris aurea (L.) Link, Phlebodium aureum L. var. pulvinatum (Link) Farw., Phlebodium pulvinatum (Link) J.Sm., Pleopeltis aurea (L.) C.Presl, Polypodium aureum L., Polypodium aureum var. leucatomos (Poir.) Krug, Polypodium leucatomos Poir., Polypodium leucotomos Hieron., etc.]
Calaguala Fern, Golden Polypody, Golden Serpent Fern, Gold-Foot Fern, Hare-Foot Fern, Rabbit-Foot Fern, Polypode Doré, Goldtüpfelfarn

In addition to the uncertainty that arises from the use of the common name "calaguala" [see Phlebodium (R.Br.) J.Sm. above], nomenclatural confusion pervades the medico-scientific literature relating to this taxon. Most of the studies and reports relating to this taxon refer to Polypodium leucotomos, an orthographical variant of the correct name Polypodium leucatomos Poir. Further, there is uncertainty in the literature as to whether Polypodium leucatomos Poir. should be regarded as a synonym of Phlebodium aureum (L.) J.Sm (see Plants of the World Online, Stolze 1981, Meza Torres et al. 2006, Gattuso et al. 2008, Martín-Pozo et al. 2019) or vice versa (see Murbach et al. 2015, Murbach et al. 2017), or whether it is properly considered to be a synonym of Phlebodium decumanum (Willd.) J.Sm. (see Horvath et al. 1975, Catalogue of Life, GBIF, World Ferns). The misspelling of "leucatomos" as "leucotomos" is an error that can be traced back to Hieronymus (1909); to add to the confusion, a further orthographical variant, "leucotomas", has also come into common use. Indeed, the common references in the medico-scientific and cosmetic product ingredient literature to extracts prepared from "Polypodium leucotomos" or "Polypodium leucotomas" rather than Polypodium leucatomos (or, indeed, Phlebodium aureum or Phlebodium decumanum) may be symptomatic of laxity in botanical identification / authentication and/or peer review in the case of medico-scientific articles, this making research findings difficult to interpret. In mitigation, botanical identification of plant material is complicated by the hybrid nature of Phlebodium aureum [see Phlebodium (R.Br.) J.Sm. above], which probably has resulted in a "hybrid swarm" of individual ferns with characteristics ranging between those of the two parent species, this being referred to by some authors (see Cáceres & Cruz 2018) as a Phlebodium complex. It may be more appropriate to refer to Phlebodium × aureum (L.) J.Sm. (pro sp.) where it can be confirmed with a chromosome count (see Evans 1963), that the "Polypodium leucotomos" fern in question is neither one (Phlebodium pseudoaureum / Phlebodium areolatum) nor the other (Phlebodium decumanum) presumptive parent species.

Products containing "Polypodium leucotomos extract" ["PLE"] for oral and for topical use have been commercialised under various trade names including Anapsos®, Difur®, Fernage®, Fernblock®, Fernmed™, Fernplus®, Heliocare®, Kalawalla®, and Sunsafe Rx® to treat a variety of dermatologic conditions (Baumann 2007, Choudhry et al. 2014, Nestor et al. 2015, Berman et al. 2016). Medical conditions for which PLE has been investigated as a treatment include psoriasis (Corrales Padilla et al. 1974, Piñeiro Alvarez 1983, Vargas et al. 1983), atopic dermatitis (Beltrán et al. 1982, Jiménez et al. 1986, Jiménez et al. 1987, Ramírez-Bosca et al. 2012), and vitiligo (Mohammad 1989, Middelkamp-Hup et al. 2007).

In healthy volunteers, orally administered Polypodium leucotomos leaf extract (Fernblock®; PLE) decreased psoralen-ultraviolet A [PUVA]–induced phototoxicity and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (Middelkamp-Hup et al. 2004a). However, orally administered PLE with concomitant narrow band ultraviolet B [NB-UVB] phototherapy enhanced repigmentation of vitiligo (Middelkamp-Hup et al. 2007, Zurita et al. 2013, Pacifico et al. 2021).

PLE has also been found to minimize certain photoaging changes in a hairless albino mouse model (Alcaraz et al. 1999), to decrease ultraviolet-induced damage of human skin (Middelkamp-Hup et al. 2004b), and to reduce UVB-induced erythema / sunburn after topical or oral administration (González & Pathak 1996, González et al. 1997, Kohli et al. 2017), this leading to its being promoted as a photoprotective agent against solar UV radiation (El-Haj & Goldstein 2015) and as an adjunct in the management of polymorphic light eruption (Tanew et al. 2012, Caccialanza et al. 2007), solar urticaria (Caccialanza et al. 2007), melasma (Ahmed et al. 2013, Goh et al. 2018), scalp actinic keratosis (Auriemma et al. 2015), and actinic prurigo (Stump et al. 2022).

However, in view of the possible mis-identification of source plant material and because of differences in the methods of preparation and standardisation (or not) of the various extracts by different manufacturers and researchers, the various extracts are not all equivalent in their composition and therefore in their bio-activity, as has been demonstrated by González et al. (2018). Indeed, an Editor's comment (see Jimenez et al. 1986) has previously drawn attention to the indeterminate composition of Anapsos. Perhaps the most significant source of difference in composition is whether the extract has been prepared using the fronds (leaves) of the fern, its rhizome, or the whole plant.

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Phlebodium decumanum (Willd.) J.Sm.
[syns Chrysopteris decumana (Willd.) Fée, Pleopeltis decumana (Willd.) C.Presl, Polypodium decumanum Willd., etc.]
Calaguala Fern, Creeping Golden Polypody

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Platycerium coronarium (J.König ex O.F.Müll.) Desv.
[syns Acrostichum biforme Sw., Acrostichum fuciforme Wall., Neuroplatyceros biformis Fée, Osmunda coronaria J.König ex O.F.Müll., Platycerium biforme (Sw.) Blume, Platycerium platylobum Bidin & R.Jaman]
Elkhorn Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Platycerium stemaria (P.Beauv.) Desv.
[syns Acrostichum stemaria P.Beauv., Alcicornium stemaria (P.Beauv.) Underw., Platycerium aethiopicum (Fée) Hook.]
Green Elk Antlers, Guinea Elk's Horn Fern, Triangle Antler Fern, Triangular Staghorn Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Pleopeltis macrocarpa (Bory ex Willd.) Kaulf.
[syns Pleopeltis lanceolata (L.) Kaulf., Polypodium lanceolatum L., Polypodium macrocarpum Bory ex Willd.]
Lance Fern, Scaly Lance Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Pleopeltis polypodioides (L.) E.G.Andrews & Windham
[syns Acrostichum polypodioides L., Pleopeltis incana (Sw.) Wall., Polypodium incanum Sw., Polypodium polypodioides (L.) Watt]
Resurrection Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Polypodium subpetiolatum Hook.
[syns Polypodium adelphum Maxon, Polypodium guilleminianum E.Fourn.]
Calaguala

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Polypodium vulgare L.
[syn. Ctenopteris vulgaris (L.) Newman]
Common Polypody, Engelsüß, Tüpfelfarn

Referring incorrectly to Polypodium vulgaris, Rodríguez et al. (2001) described a case of occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and contact urticaria in an 18-year old male working in a fishmongers where fronds of this fern were being used to decorate boxes of fish.

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Pyrrosia heterophylla (L.) M.G.Price
[syns Acrostichum heterophyllum L., Drymoglossum heterophyllum (L.) Trimen]
Felt Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Pyrrosia lingua (Thunb.) Farw.
[syns Acrostichum lingua Thunb., Pyrrosia caudifrons Ching, Boufford & K.H.Shing, Pyrrosia martini (Christ) Ching]
Felt Fern, Tongue Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Pyrrosia piloselloides (L.) M.G.Price
[syns Drymoglossum piloselloides (L.) C.Presl, Notholaena piloselloides (L.) Kaulf., Pteris piloselloides L.]
Dragon's Scale Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – PTERIDACEAE

(Maidenhair Fern family)

 



Acrostichum aureum L.
[syns Chrysodium aureum (L.) Mett., Hemionitis arifolia (Burm.f.) T.Moore, Polystichum emarginatum (Willd.) T.Moore, etc.]
Coast Leather Fern, Golden Leatherfern, Mangrove Fern, Swamp Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Acrostichum danaeifolium Langsd. & Fisch.
[syns Acrostichum excelsum Maxon, Acrostichum lomarioides (Jenman) Jenman]
Giant Fern, Giant Leather-Fern, Inland Leather Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Actiniopteris radiata (J.König ex Sw.) Link
[syns Acrostichum dichotomum Forssk., Actiniopteris dichotoma (Forssk.) Bedd., Actiniopteris dichotoma (Forssk.) Kuhn, Actiniopteris dichotoma (Forssk.) Mett., Asplenium radiatum J.König ex Sw., Pteris radiata (J.König ex Sw.) Bojer]
Fan-Leaved Fern, Peacock's Tail

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Adiantum L.
Maidenhair Ferns

This is the second largest genus in the Pteridaceae, comprising about 225 species (PPG I 2016) globally distributed, but especially diverse in tropical America (Mabberley 2017) with many species grown as ornamentals (Hunt 1968/70).

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Adiantum aethiopicum L.
[syns Adiantum assimile Sw., Adiantum trigonum Labill.]
Common Maidenhair Fern, True Maidenhair

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Adiantum capillus-veneris L.
[syns Adiantum africanum R.Br., Adiantum coriandrifolium Lam., Adiantum pseudocapillus Fée, etc.]
Black Maidenhair Fern, Maidenhair Fern, Net Hair Fern, Southern Maidenhair Fern, Venus Maidenhair Fern, Frauenhaarfarn

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Adiantum caudatum L.
[syns Adiantum borneense Gand., Adiantum lyratum Blanco]
Tailed Maidenhair Fern, Trailing Maidenhair Fern, Walking Maidenhair Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Adiantum incisum Forssk.
[syns Adiantum capillus-gorgonis Webb, Adiantum sinicum Ching, Adiantum vestitum Wall.]
Trailing Maidenhair Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Adiantum latifolium Lam.
[syns Adiantum fovearum Raddi, Adiantum glaziovii Baker, Adiantum triangulatum Kaulf.]
Broadleaf Maidenhair

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Adiantum pedatum L.
[syn. Adiantum americanum Nieuwl.]
Five-Finger Fern, Northern Maidenhair Fern, Adiante du Canada

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Adiantum philippense L. subsp. philippense
[syns Adiantum arcuatum (Poir.) Sw., Adiantum lunulatum Burm.f., Pteris lunulata (Burm.f.) Retz.]
Black Maidenhair, Walking Maidenhair Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Adiantum poiretii Wikstr.
[syn. Adiantum crenatum Poir.]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Adiantum raddianum C.Presl
[syns Adiantum cuneatum Langsd. & Fisch., Adiantum decorum T.Moore]
Delta Maidenhair Fern, Maidenhair Fern, Venus Hair Fern, Walking Fern, Raddes Frauenhaarfarn

Lynne-Davies & Mitchell (1974) applied portions of the fresh leaf of Adiantum decorum to the backs of 2 males for 48 hours under occlusion. Neither irritant reactions nor delayed flares occurred.

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Adiantum venustum D.Don
[syn. Adiantum bonatianum Brause]
Evergreen Maidenhair, Hardy Maidenhair, Himalayan Maidenhair Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Adiantum zollingeri Mett. ex Kuhn

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn. subsp. thalictroides
[syns Acrostichum thalictroides L., Acrostichum siliquosum L., Ceratopteris siliquosa (L.) Copel., Pteris thalictroides (L.) Sw.]
Oriental Water Fern, Water Fern, Water Horn Fern, Water Sprite, Wasserhornfarn

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Coniogramme fraxinea (D.Don) Diels
[syn. Diplazium fraxineum D.Don]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Coniogramme japonica (Thunb.) Diels
[syns Coniogramme centrochinensis Ching, Hemionitis japonica Thunb., Notogramme japonica (Thunb.) C.Presl]
Japanese Bamboo Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Hemionitis acrostica (Balb.) Mosyakin
[syns Allosorus acrosticus (Balb.) Christenh., Cheilanthes acrostica (Balb.) Tod., Cheilanthes odora Sw., Oeosporangium pteridioides subsp. acrosticum (Balb.) Fraser-Jenk. & Pariyar, Pteris acrostica Balb.]
Fragrant Cheilanthes, Scented Cheilanthes

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Hemionitis albomarginata (C.B.Clarke) Christenh.
[syns Aleuritopteris albomarginata (C.B.Clarke) Ching, Cheilanthes albomarginata C.B.Clarke, Leptolepidium dalhousieae (Hook.) K.H.Shing & S.K.Wu]
Bristly Cloak Fern, Glade Fern, Slender Lip Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Hemionitis calomelanos (Sw.) Christenh.
[syns Pellaea calomelanos (Sw.) Link, Pellaea hastata (Thunb.) Prantl, Pteris calomelanos Sw.]
Hard Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Hemionitis eckloniana (Kunze) Christenh.
[syns Cheilanthes eckloniana (Kunze) Mett., Notholaena eckloniana Kunze]
Ecklon’s Lip Fern, Resurrection Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Hemionitis farinosa (Forssk.) Christenh.
[syns Aleuritopteris farinosa (Forssk.) Fée, Cheilanthes farinosa (Forssk.) Kaulf., Pteris farinosa Forssk.]
Floury Cloak Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Hemionitis opposita (Kaulf.) Christenh.
[syns Cheilanthes mysurensis Wall. ex Hook., Cheilanthes opposita Kaulf., Cheilosoria mysuriensis (Wall. ex Hook.) Ching & K.H.Shing, Oeosporangium elegans (Poir.) Fraser-Jenk. & Pariyar, Pteris elegans Poir.]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Hemionitis pteridioides (Reichard) Christenh.
[syns Cheilanthes pteridioides (Reichard) C.Chr., Cheilanthes maderensis Lowe, Cheilanthes fragrans (L.) Sw., Oeosporangium pteridioides Fraser-Jenk. & Pariyar subsp. pteridioides, Polypodium fragrans L., Polypodium pteridioides Reichard, Pteris fragrans (L.) Lag.]
Hay-Scented Lip Fern, Scented Cheilanthes, Madeira-Schuppenfarn

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Hemionitis quadripinnata (Forssk.) Christenh.
[syns Cheilanthes quadripinnata (Forssk.) Kuhn, Pellaea quadripinnata (Forssk.) Prantl, Pteris quadripinnata Forssk.]
Four-Pinnate Lip Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Hemionitis tenuifolia (Burm.f.) Christenh.
[syns Cheilanthes humilis (G.Forst.) P.S.Green, Cheilanthes tenuifolia (Burm.f.) Sw., Cheilosoria tenuifolia (Burm.f.) Trevis., Oeosporangium tenuifolium (Burm.f.) Fraser-Jenk. & Pariyar, Pteris humilis G.Forst., Trichomanes tenuifolium Burm.f.]
Narrow-Leaved Lip Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Hemionitis truncata (Goodd.) Christenh.
[syn. Pellaea truncata Goodd.]
Spiny Cliffbrake

The common name refers to the spiny tipsa of the paired oval leaflets of this fern, whose native rangeb is SE California to Central Colorado and NW Mexico.



Hemionitis viridis (Forssk.) Christenh.
[syns Adiantum viride (Forssk.) Vahl, Cheilanthes viridis (Forssk.) Sw., Pellaea viridis (Forssk.) Prantl, Pteris viridis Forssk.]
Common Lip Fern, Green Cliffbrake

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link
[syns Acrostichum calomelanos L., Ceropteris calomelanos (L.) Link, Gymnogramma calomelanos (L.) Kaulf., Neurogramma calomelanos (L.) Diels, etc.]
Dixie Silverback Fern, Silver Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Polytaenium cajenense (Desv.) Benedict
[syns Antrophyum brasilianum (Desv.) C.Chr., Antrophyum cajenense (Desv.) Spreng., Hemionitis cajenensis Desv., Polytaenium brasilianum (Desv.) Benedict]

The dorsiventral rhizome and the dense mat of roots of this epiphytic fern found growing on the "super-nettle" Cordia nodosa Lam. (fam. Boraginaceae) in Peru provide pseudo-domatia [i.e. external domatia] for the Azteca Forel, 1878 (fam. Formicidae) ants that colonise the myrmecodomatia provided by the host Cordia tree (León & Young 2010). Accordingly, if either the host tree or the fern epiphyte in their natural habitat is handled, the bites and/or stings of the ants associated these myrmecophytes may elicit a pseudophytodermatitis (Schmidt 1985).



Pteris L.

This is a genus comprising, according to Plants of the World Online, about 330 species of worldwide distribution. Some, including the Cretan brake (Pteris cretica L.), the sword brake (Pteris ensiformis Burm.f.), the spider fern (Pteris multifida Poir.), and the Australian brake (Pteris tremula R.Br., are commonly grown as house plants (Hunt 1968/70). The genus includes some spiny species; the following list is representative (Presl 1825,a Testo 2021,b Christensen 1943):

Pteris armata C.Presl
Pteris biaurita subsp. fornicata Fraser-Jenk.
[syn. Pteris pacifica var. eximia (Rech.) C.Chr.]
Pteris navarrensis Christ — Navarro River Brake
Pteris spinescens C.Presl
Pteris vaupelii Hieron. 


Pteris cretica L.
[syn. Pycnodoria cretica (L.) Small]
Cretan Brake Fern, Ribbon Fern, Table Fern, Kretischer Saumfarn

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Pteris dispar Kunze
[syn. Pteris taiwaniana Masam. & Suzuki]
Disparate Brake

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Pteris ensiformis Burm.f. var. ensiformis
[syns Pteris crenata Sw., Pteris ensiformis var. victoriae W.Bull ex Ridl.]
Silver Lace Fern, Slender Brake Fern, Sword Brake fern, Variegated Brake Fern

This fern, and in particular the variegated cultivars 'Evergemiensis' and 'Victoriae', which are widely offered for sale by florists and garden centres, is commonly grown as an ornamental house, terrarium, or bottle garden plant.

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Pteris multifida Poir.
[syns Pteris serrulata L.f., Pycnodoria multifida (Poir.) Small]
Huguenot Fern, Spider Brake, Spider Fern, Wall Brake, Vielteiliger Saumfarn

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Pteris quadriaurita Retz
[syn. Pteris quadrialata Willd.]
Silver Lace Fern, Striped Brake

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Pteris semipinnata L.
[syns Pteris alata Poir., Pteris dimidiata Willd.]
Half Leaf Fern, Semi-Pinnated Brake Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Pteris vittata L. subsp. vittata
[syns Pteris costata Bory ex Willd., Pteris diversifolia Sw., Pteris ensifolia Poir., etc.]
Brake Fern, Chinese Brake Fern, Chinese Ladder Fern, Fougère à Feuilles Longues, Gebänderter Saumfarn

[Information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – SALVINIACEAE

(Floating Fern, Kariba Weed, Water Fern, or Watermoss family)

 



Azolla pinnata subsp. asiatica R.M.K.Saunders & K.Fowler
[syns Azolla imbricata Nakai, Salvinia imbricata Roxb. ex Griff.]
Feathered Waterfern, Ferny Azolla, Imbricate Mosquito Fern, Mosquito Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Azolla rubra R.Br.
[syn. Azolla filiculoides var. rubra (R.Br.) Strasb.]
Pacific Azolla, Red Azolla, Water Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Salvinia auriculata Aubl.
[syns Salvinia radula Baker, Salvinia rotundifolia Willd.]
African Payal, Butterfly Fern, Eared Watermoss, Giant Salvinia, Rundblättriger Schwimmfarn

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Salvinia minima Baker
Water Fern, Water Spangles

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Salvinia × molesta D.S.Mitch. (pro sp.)
[syns Salvinia adnata Desv., Salvinia auriculata auct. non Aubl., misapplied name]
African Payal, Giant Salvinia, Kariba Weed

[Information available but not yet included in database]



LYCOPHYTES – SELAGINELLACEAE

(Spikemoss family)

 



Selaginella biformis A.Braun ex Kuhn
[syn. Selaginella flagellifera W.Bull]
Dimorphic Spikemoss

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Selaginella involvens (Sw.) Spring
[syns Lycopodium involvens Sw., Selaginella caulescens (Wall. ex Hook. & Grev.) Spring]
Involute Spikemoss, Medicinal Spikemoss, Tree Spikemoss

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. & Grev.) Spring
[syns Lycopodium lepidophyllum Hook. & Grev., Lycopodioides lepidophylla (Hook. & Grev.) Kuntze]
Dinosaur Plant, False Rose of Jericho, Flower of Stone, Resurrection Moss, Resurrection Plant, Rose of Jericho

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Selaginella pallescens (C.Presl) Spring
[syns Lycopodium cuspidatum Link, Lycopodium pallescens C.Presl, Selaginella cuspidata (Link) Link, Selaginella emmeliana Van Geert]
Moss Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Selaginella plana (Desv. ex Poir.) Hieron.
[syns Lycopodium durvillaei Bory, Lycopodium planum Desv. ex Poir., Selaginella durvillaei (Bory) A.Braun ex Kuhn]
Asian Spikemoss

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Selaginella pulvinata (Hook. & Grev.) Maxim.
[syns Lycopodium pulvinatum Hook. & Grev., Lycopodioides pulvinata (Hook. & Grev.) H.S.Kung]
Moss Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Selaginella serpens (Desv.) Spring
[syns Lycopodium serpens Desv., Lycopodioides serpens (Desv.) Kuntze]
Serpent Moss

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Selaginella tamariscina (P.Beauv.) Spring
[syns Lycopodium tamariscinum (P.Beauv.) Desv. ex Poir., Lycopodioides tamariscina (P.Beauv.) H.S.Kung, Stachygynandrum tamariscinum P.Beauv.]
Little Club Moss, Resurrection Fern, White Tip Spikemoss

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Selaginella willdenowii (Desv. ex Poir.) Baker
[syns Lycopodium laevigatum Willd., Lycopodium willdenowii Desv. ex Poir., Selaginella laevigata (Willd.) Spring]
Vine Spikemoss, Willdenow's Spikemoss

[Information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – TECTARIACEAE

(Halberd Fern family)

 



Tectaria coadunata (J.Sm.) C.Chr.
[syns Sagenia coadunata J.Sm., Sagenia macrodonta Fée, Tectaria apiifolia (Schkuhr) Copel., Tectaria christii Copel., Tectaria macrodonta (Fée) C.Chr., etc.]
Halberd Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



FERNS – THELYPTERIDACEAE

(Marsh Fern family)

 



Amblovenatum opulentum (Kaulf.) J.P.Roux
[syns Amphineuron opulentum (Kaulf.) Holttum, Aspidium opulentum Kaulf., Cyclosorus extensus (Blume) H.Itô, Cyclosorus opulentus (Kaulf.) Nakaike, Nephrodium extensum (Blume) T.Moore, Thelypteris opulenta (Kaulf.) Fosberg]
Jewelled Maiden Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Ampelopteris prolifera (Retz.) Copel.
[syns Cyclosorus prolifer (Retz.) Tardieu, Dryopteris prolifera (Retz.) C.Chr., Hemionitis prolifera Retz., Thelypteris prolifera (Retz.) C.F.Reed]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Christella arida (D.Don) Holttum
[syns Aspidium aridum D.Don, Cyclosorus aridus (D.Don) Ching, Cyclosorus aridus (D.Don) Tagawa, Thelypteris arida (D.Don) Morton]
Dry Wood Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Christella dentata (Forssk.) Brownsey & Jermy
[syns Cyclosorus dentatus (Forssk.) Ching, Polypodium dentatum Forssk., Thelypteris dentata (Forssk.) E.P.St.John]
Downy Maiden Fern, Downy Woodfern, Soft Fern, Soft Shield Fern, Gezähnter Sumpffarn

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Christella parasitica (L.) H.Lév.
[syns Cyclosorus parasiticus (L.) Farw., Polypodium parasiticum L., Thelypteris parasitica (L.) Tardieu]
Parasitic Maiden Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Cyclosorus interruptus (Willd.) H.Itô
[syns Cyclosorus gongylodes auct. non Link, Dryopteris interrupta (Willd.) Ching, Pteris interrupta Willd., Thelypteris interrupta (Willd.) K.Iwats.]
Bog Fern, Hottentot Fern, March Fern, Neke Fern, Swamp Shield-Fern, Willdenow's Maiden Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Glaphyropteridopsis erubescens (Wall. ex Hook.) Ching
[syns Cyclosorus erubescens (Wall. ex Hook.) C.M.Kuo, Polypodium erubescens Wall. ex Hook., Thelypteris erubescens (Wall. ex Hook.) Ching, etc.]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Metathelypteris gracilescens (Blume) Ching
[syns Aspidium gracilescens Blume, Dryopteris calva Copel., Lastrea gracilescens (Blume) T.Moore, Thelypteris gracilescens (Blume) Ching]

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Pakau pennigera (G.Forst.) S.E.Fawc. & A.R.Sm.
[syns Cyclosorus pennigerus (G.Forst.) Ching, Dryopteris pennigera (G.Forst.) C.Chr., Pneumatopteris pennigera (G.Forst.) Holttum, Polypodium pennigerum G.Forst., Polystichum pennigerum (G.Forst.) Gaudich., Thelypteris pennigera (G.Forst.) Allan]
Feather Fern, Gully Fern, Lime Fern

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Trigonospora ciliata (Wall. ex Benth.) Holttum
[syns Aspidium ciliatum Wall. ex Benth., Cyclosorus ciliatus (Wall. ex Benth.) Panigrahi, Polypodium tenerum Roxb., Pseudocyclosorus ciliatus (Wall. ex Benth.) Ching, Thelypteris tenera (Roxb.) C.V.Morton ex Fraser-Jenk., Trigonospora tenera (Roxb.) Mazumdar]

[Information available but not yet included in database]


References

  • Ahmed AM, Lopez I, Perese F, Vasquez R, Hynan LS, Chong B, Pandya AG (2013) A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of oral Polypodium leucotomos extract as an adjunct to sunscreen in the treatment of melasma. JAMA Dermatology 149(8): 981-983 [doi] [url] [pmid]
  • Alcaraz MV, Pathak MA, Rius F, Kollias N, González S (1999) An extract of Polypodium leucotomos appears to minimize certain photoaging changes in a hairless albino mouse animal model. A pilot study. Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine 15(3-4): 120-126 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Andersen F, Paulsen E (2016) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the Boston fern Nephrolepis exaltata ‘Bostoniensis’. Contact Dermatitis 75(4): 255-256 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Auriemma M, Di Nicola M, Gonzalez S, Piaserico S, Capo A, Amerio P (2015) Polypodium leucotomos supplementation in the treatment of scalp actinic keratosis: could it improve the efficacy of photodynamic therapy? Dermatologic Surgery 41(8): 898-902 [doi] [url] [pmid]
  • Baumann LS (2007) Less-known botanical cosmeceuticals. Dermatologic Therapy 20(5): 330-342 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Behl PN, Captain RM, Bedi BMS, Gupta S (1966) Skin-Irritant and Sensitizing Plants Found in India. New Delhi: PN Behl [WorldCat]
  • Belonias BS, Bañoc LM (1994) Species diversity and distribution of pteridophytes in Mount Pangasugan. Annals of Tropical Research 16(2): 30-38 [url] [url-2]
  • Beltrán R, Mateo M, Ascensión P (1982) Precomunicación sobre un nuevo tratamiento efectuado con 48 niños afectados de dermatitis atópica. [Pre-communication about a new treatment carried out with 48 children affected by atopic dermatitis]. Actualidad Dermatológica 10: 52-55
  • Benjamin A, Manickam VS (2007) Medicinal pteridophytes from the Western Ghats. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 6(4): 611-618 [url] [url-2]
  • Berman B, Ellis C, Elmets C (2016) Polypodium leucotomos – an overview of basic investigative findings. Journal of Drugs in Dermatology 15(2): 224-228 [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Bezona N, Rauch FD, Iwata RY (1994) Tree ferns for Hawaiʻi gardens. Research Extension Series ‒ Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources 144: 1-13 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Brummitt RK (1992) Vascular Plant Families and Genera. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens [WorldCat]
  • Bunnag C, Dhorranintra B, Limsuvan S, Jareoncharsri P (1989) Ferns and their allergenic importance: skin and nasal provocation tests to fern spore extract in allergic and non-allergic patients. Annals of Allergy 62(6): 554-558 [pmid]
  • Briggs LH, Taylor WI (1947) The occurrence of methyl salicylate in a fern, Asplenium lamprophyllum. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 76(4): 597 [url] [url-2]
  • Brooker SG, Cooper RC (1961a) New Zealand medicinal plants. Economic Botany 15(1): 1-10 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Brooker SG, Cooper RC (1961b) New Zealand Medicinal Plants. Auckland: Unity Press [WorldCat]
  • Caccialanza M, Percivalle S, Piccinno R, Brambilla R (2007) Photoprotective activity of oral polypodium leucotomos extract in 25 patients with idiopathic photodermatoses. Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine 23(1): 46-47 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Cáceres A, Cruz SM (2018) Application of calahuala (Phlebodium spp) fern complex for the formulation of diverse medicinal and cosmetic products. International Journal of Phytocosmetics and Natural Ingredients 5(1): 11 (5 pp.) [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Caius JF (1935/6) The medicinal and poisonous ferns of India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 38(2): 341-361 [url] [url-2]
  • Cao H, Chai T-T, Wang X, Morais-Braga MFB, Yang J-H, Wong F-C, Wang R, Yao H, Cao J, Cornara L, Burlando B, Wang Y, Xiao J, Coutinho HDM (2017) Phytochemicals from fern species: potential for medicine applications. Phytochemistry Reviews 16(3): 379-440 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Chen H-H, Sun C-C, Tseng M-P, Hsu C-J (2003) A patch test study of 27 crude drugs commonly used in Chinese topical medicaments. Contact Dermatitis 49(1): 8-14 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Choudhry SZ, Bhatia N, Ceilley R, Hougeir F, Lieberman R, Hamzavi I, Lim HW (2014) Role of oral Polypodium leucotomos extract in dermatologic diseases: a review of the literature. Journal of Drugs in Dermatology 13(2): 148-153 [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Christenhusz MJM, Bangiolo L, Chase MW, Fay MF, Husby C, Witkus M, Viruel J (2019) Phylogenetics, classification and typification of extant horsetails (Equisetum, Equisetaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 189(4): 311-352 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Christenhusz MJM, Chase MW (2014) Trends and concepts in fern classification. Annals of Botany 113(4): 571-594 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Christenhusz MJM, Chase MW (2018) PPG recognises too many fern genera. Taxon 67(3): 481-487 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Christensen C (1943) A revision of the pteridophyta of Samoa. Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Bulletin 177. Honolulu, Hawaii [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
  • Conant DS (1983) A revision of the genus Alsophila (Cyatheaceae) in the Americas. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 64(3): 333-382 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Corrales Padilla H, Laínez N H, Pacheco JA (1974) A new agent (hydrophilic fraction of Polypodium leucotomos) for management of psoriasis. International Journal of Dermatology 13(5): 276-282 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • CosIng (2022) COSING Ingredients-Fragrance Inventory v2 11/04/2022. [online article]: https://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/cosing/pdf/COSING_Ingredients-Fragrance%20Inventory_v2.pdf ; accessed April 2022 [url] [url-2]
  • Culpeper N (1652) The English Physitian: or An Astrologo-Physical Discourse of the Vulgar Herbs of this Nation. Being a compleat method of physick, whereby a man may preserve his body in health; or cure himself, being sick, for three pence charge, with such things only as grow in England, they being most fit for English bodies. London: Peter Cole [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
  • Davidson DW (1988) Ecological studies of neotropical ant gardens. Ecology 69(4): 1138-1152 [doi] [doi-2] [url] [url-2]
  • de Winter WP, Amoroso VB (Eds) (2003) Plant Resources of South-East Asia, No 15 (2) Cryptogams: Ferns and fern allies. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
  • Derry S, Matthews PRL, Wiffen PJ, Moore RA (2014) Salicylate‐containing rubefacients for acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014(11): CD007403 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Derzhavina NM (2017) Convergence and parallelism in evolution of structures and functions of ferns and other groups of plants. Turczaninowia 20(3): 64-71 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Dong S-Y (2020) Synopsis of Cyatheaceae from Myanmar. Phytotaxa 449(3): 207-216 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • El-Haj N, Goldstein N (2015) Sun protection in a pill: the photoprotective properties of Polypodium leucotomos extract. International Journal of Dermatology 54(3): 362-366 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Estrin NF, Ferguson JP, Coale WC, Rhoads LC (Eds) (1977) CFTA Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary. 2nd edn. Washington, DC: The Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association, Inc. [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
  • Eugster CH (1976) Equisetumalkaloide; Stand der chemischen Erforschung 1975. [Equisetum alkaloids; State of chemical research 1975]. Heterocycles 4(1): 51-105 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Evans AM (1963) New chromosome observations in the Polypodiaceae and Grammitidaceae. Caryologia 16(3): 671-677 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Evans WC, Patel MC, Koohy Y (1982) Acute bracken poisoning in homogastric and ruminant animals. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Section B: Biological Sciences 81(1-2): 29-64 [doi] [url]
  • Felter HW (1922) The Eclectic Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Cincinnati, OH: John K Scudder [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
  • Flück H, Jaspersen-Schib R (1976) Medicinal Plants and their Uses. Medicinal plants, simply described and illustrated with notes on their constituents, actions and uses, their collection, cultivation and preparations. London: Foulsham [WorldCat]
  • Gastony GJ (1973) A revision of the fern genus Nephelea. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (203): 81-148 [doi] [url]
  • Gattuso MA, Cortadi AA, Gattuso SJ (2008) Caracteres morfoanatómicos de especies de Phlebodium. [Morphoanatomical characters of Phlebodium species]. Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas 7(1): 10-17 [url] [url-2]
  • Geller-Bernstein C, Keynan N, Bejerano A, Shomer-Ilan A, Waisel Y (1987) Positive skin tests to fern spore extracts in atopic patients. Annals of Allergy 58(2): 125-127 [pmid]
  • Gerarde J (1636) The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes. Very much enlarged and amended by Thomas Johnson citizen and apothecarye of London, 2nd edn. London: A Islip, J Norton and R Whitakers [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
  • Gerson U (1979) The associations between pteridophytes and arthropods. Fern Gazette 12(1): 29-45 [url] [url-2]
  • Gil da Costa RM, Bastos MMSM, Oliveira PA, Lopes C (2012) Bracken-associated human and animal health hazards: Chemical, biological and pathological evidence. Journal of Hazardous Materials 203-204: 1-12 [doi] [url] [pmid]
  • Goh C-L, Chuah SY, Tien S, Thng G, Vitale MA, Delgado-Rubin A (2018) Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Polypodium leucotomos extract in the treatment of melasma in Asian skin: a pilot study. The Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology 11(3): 14-19 [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Gómez LD (1977) The Azteca ants of Solanopteris brunei. American Fern Journal 67(1): 31 [doi] [url]
  • González S, Pathak MA (1996) Inhibition of ultraviolet-induced formation of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, erythema and skin photosensitization by Polypodium leucotomos. Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine 12(2): 45-56 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • González S, Pathak MA, Cuevas J, Villarrubia VG, Fitzpatrick TB (1997) Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin. Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine 13(1-2): 50-60 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • González S, Lucena SR, Delgado P, Juarranz A (2018) Comparison of several hydrophilic extracts of Polypodium leucotomos reveals different antioxidant moieties and photoprotective effects in vitro. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 12(22): 336-345 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Grieve M (1931) A Modern Herbal. The medicinal, culinary, cosmetic and economic properties, cultivation and folk-lore of herbs, grasses, fungi, shrubs & trees with all their modern scientific uses, Vols 1 & 2. London: Jonathan Cape [WorldCat] [url]
  • Gunther RT (Ed.) (1959) The Greek Herbal of Dioscorides. Illustrated by a Byzantine AD 512. Englished by John Goodyer AD 1655. Edited and first printed AD 1933. New York: Hafner Publishing Company [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
  • Hausen BM, Schulz KH (1978) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis due to leatherleaf fern Arachniodes adiantiformis (Forst) Tindale. British Journal of Dermatology 98(3): 325-329 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Hieronymus G (1909) Plantae Stübelianae. Pteridophyta. Vierter Teil. Hedwigia 48(4; 5; 6): 215-224; 225-256; 257-303 [url] [url-2]
  • Hindson C (1977) Contact eczema from methyl salicylate reproduced by oral aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid). Contact Dermatitis 3(6): 348-349 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Holttum RE (1935) The tree-ferns of the Malay Peninsular. The Gardens' Bulletin, Straits Settlements 8(4): 293-320 [url] [url-2]
  • Horvath A, de Szöcs J, Alvarado F, Grant DJW (1975) Triterpenes from rhizomes of Polypodium leucotomos. Phytochemistry 14(7): 1641-1642 [doi] [url]
  • Huang KC (1993) The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press [WorldCat]
  • Hunt P (Ed.) (1968/70) The Marshall Cavendish Encyclopedia of Gardening. London: Marshall Cavendish [WorldCat]
  • Hyde MA, Wursten BT, Ballings P, Coates Palgrave M (2022) Flora of Zimbabwe: Cyathea manniana Hook. [online article]: https://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=101250 ; accessed July 2022 [url]
  • Jimenez D, Doblare E, Naranjo R, Muñoz C, Vargas JF (1986) Anapsos modifies immunological parameters and improves the clinical course in atopic dermatitis. Dermatologica 173(3): 154-155 [doi] [url] [pmid]
  • Jiménez D, Naranjo R, Doblaré E, Muñoz C, Vargas JF (1987) Anapsos, an antipsoriatic drug, in atopic dermatitis. Allergologia et Immunopathologia 15(4): 185-189 [pmid]
  • Johns RJ (1991) 178. DIPLAZIUM PROLIFERUM. Woodsiaceae. The Kew Magazine 8(3): 128-133 [doi] [doi-2] [url] [url-2]
  • Kirtikar KR, Basu BD (1935) Indian Medicinal Plants, 2nd edn, Vols 1-4. (Edited, revised, enlarged, and mostly rewritten by Blatter E, Caius JF, Mhaskar KS). Allahabad, India: Lalit Mohan Basu [WorldCat] [url]
  • Kofler H, Hemmer W, Focke M, Jarisch R (2000) Fern allergy. Allergy 55(3): 299-300 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Kohli I, Shafi R, Isedeh P, Griffith JL, Al-Jamal MS, Silpa-archa N, Jackson B, Athar M, Kollias N, Elmets CA, Lim W, Hamzavi IH (2017) The impact of oral Polypodium leucotomos extract on ultraviolet B response: a human clinical study. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 77(1): 33-41.e1 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Large MF, Braggins JE (2004) Tree Ferns. Portland, OR: Timber Press [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
  • Lehnert M (2006a) New species and records of tree ferns (Cyatheaceae, Pteridophyta) from the northern Andes. Organisms Diversity & Evolution 6(Electronic Supplement 13)(4): 321-322 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Lehnert M (2006b) The Cyatheaceae and Dicksoniaceae (Pteridophyta) of Bolivia. Brittonia 58(3): 229-244 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Lehnert M (2009) Three new species of scaly tree ferns (Cyathea-Cyatheaceae) from the northern Andes. Phytotaxa 1(1): 43-56 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Lehnert M (2011) The Cyatheaceae (Polypodiopsida) of Peru. Brittonia 63(1): 11-45 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • León B, Young KR (2010) A fortuitous ant-fern association in the Amazon lowlands of Peru. Una asociación fortuita planta-hormiga en la Amazonía baja del Perú. Revista Peruana de Biología 17(2): 245-247 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Lu J-M, Li D-Z (2006) 论拟贯众属的系统位置 [The study on systematic position of Cyclopeltis]. 云南植物研究 ~ Yunnan zhiwu yanjiu ~ Acta Botanica Yunnanica ~ Plant Diversity 28(4): 337-340 [url] [url-2]
  • Lynne-Davies G, Mitchell JC (1974) Patch tests for irritancy – some common house plants. Contact Dermatitis Newsletter (16): 501-502 [url]
  • Mabberley DJ (1987) The Plant-Book. A portable dictionary of the higher plants. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press [WorldCat]
  • Mabberley DJ (2017) Mabberley's Plant-Book. A portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses, 4th edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press [WorldCat] [doi] [url]
  • Martín-Pozo L, Zafra-Gómez A, Cantarero-Malagón S, Vilchez JL (2019) Analysis of Phlebodium decumanum fronds by high-performance liquid chromatography by ultraviolet-visible and quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–UV–VIS–QTOF–MS/MS). Analytical Letters 52(13): 2107-2132 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Meza Torres EI, de la Sota ER, Ferrucci MS (2006) Phlebodium aureum (Polypodiaceae, Pteridophyta): su presencia en Argentina. [Phlebodium aureum (Polypodiaceae, Pteridophyta): its presence in Argentina. Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 41(1-2): 71-76 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Mickel JT, Smith AR (2004) The Pteridophytes of Mexico. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, Vol. 88. Bronx, NY: New York Botanical Garden [doi] [WorldCat] [url]
  • Middelkamp-Hup MA, Bos JD, Rius-Diaz F, Gonzalez S, Westerhof W (2007) Treatment of vitiligo vulgaris with narrow-band UVB and oral Polypodium leucotomos extract: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 21(7): 942-950 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Middelkamp-Hup MA, Pathak MA, Parrado C, Garcia-Caballero T, Rius-Díaz F, Fitzpatrick TB, González S (2004a) Orally administered polypodium leucotomos extract decreases psoralen-UVA–induced phototoxicity, pigmentation, and damage of human skin. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 50(1): 41-49 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Middelkamp-Hup MA, Pathak MA, Parrado C, Goukassian D, Rius-Díaz F, Mihm MC, Fitzpatrick TB, González S (2004b) Oral Polypodium leucotomos extract decreases ultraviolet-induced damage of human skin. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 51(6): 910-918 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Mohammad A (1989) Vitiligo repigmentation with Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos). International Journal of Dermatology 28(7): 479 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Morgan JK (1968) Iatrogenic epidermal sensitivity. British Journal of Clinical Practice 22(6): 261-264 [pmid]
  • Müller J, Puttich PM, Beuerle T (2020) Variation of the main alkaloid content in Equisetum palustre L. in the light of Its ontogeny. Toxins (Basel) 12(11): 710 (14 pp.) [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Murbach TS, Béres E, Vértesi A, Glávits R, Hirka G, Endres JR, Clewell AE, Szakonyiné IP (2015) A comprehensive toxicological safety assessment of an aqueous extract of Polypodium leucotomos (Fernblock®). Food and Chemical Toxicology 86: 328-341 [doi] [url] [pmid]
  • Murbach TS, Glávits R, Hirka G, Endres JR, Clewell AE, Szakonyiné IP (2017) A 28-day oral toxicology study of an aqueous extract of Polypodium leucotomos (Fernblock®). Toxicology Reports 4: 494-501 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Nestor MS, Berman B, Swenson N (2015) Safety and efficacy of oral Polypodium leucotomos extract in healthy adult subjects. The Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology 8(2): 19-23 [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Nwosu MO (2002) Ethnobotanical studies on some pteridophytes of Southern Nigeria. Economic Botany 56(3): 255-259 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Oiso N, Fukai K, Ishii M (2004) Allergic contact dermatitis due to methyl salicylate in a compress. Contact Dermatitis 51(1): 34-35 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Ong HC, Nordiana M (1999) Malay ethno-medico botany in Machang, Kelantan, Malaysia. Fitoterapia 70(5): 502-513 [doi] [url]
  • Opdyke DLJ (1978) Fragrance raw materials monographs. Methyl salicylate. Food and Cosmetics Toxicology 16(Suppl 1): 821-825 [doi] [url]
  • Osol A, Farrar GE, Beyer KH, Brown JH, Detweiler DK, Pratt R, Youngken HW (Eds) (1955) The Dispensatory of the United States of America. 25th edn. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
  • Pacifico A, Damiani G, Iacovelli P, Conic RRZ, Gonzalez S, Morrone A (2021) NB-UVB plus oral Polypodium leucotomos extract display higher efficacy than NB-UVB alone in patients with vitiligo. Dermatologic Therapy 34(2): e14776 (5 pp.) [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Parkinson J (1640) Theatrum Botanicum: The Theater of Plants, or, An Herball of a Large Extent: Containing therein a more ample and exact history and declaration of the physicall herbs and plants […] Distributed into sundry classes or tribes, for the more easie knowledge of the many herbes of one nature and property […]. London: Tho. Cotes [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
  • Phillips EP (1917) A contribution to the flora of the Leribe Plateau and environs: with a discussion of the relationships of the floras of Basutoland, the Kalahari, and the South-Eastern Regions. Annals of the South African Museum 16(1): 1-379 + Plates I-VII [url] [url-2]
  • Phillipson JD, Melville C (1960) An investigation of the alkaloids of some British species of Equisetum. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 12(1): 506-508 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Piñeiro Alvarez B (1983) Dos años de experiencia personal en el tratamiento con Anapsos del psoriasis en diferentes formas clínicas. [Two years personal experience in Anapsos treatment of psoriasis in various clinical forms]. Medicina Cutánea Ibero-Latino-Americana 11(1): 65-72 [pmid]
  • PPG I (2016) A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 54(6): 563-603 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Pratt A (1855) The Ferns of Great Britain, and their Allies the Club-Mosses, Pepperworts, and Horsetails. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge [doi] [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
  • Puri HS (1970) Indian pteridophytes used in folk remedies. American Fern Journal 60(4): 137-143 [doi] [url]
  • Ramírez-Bosca A, Zapater P, Betlloch I, Albero F, Martínez A, Díaz-Alperi J, Horga JF (2012) Polypodium leucotomos extract in atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. [Extracto de Polypodium leucotomos en dermatitis atópica: ensayo multicéntrico, aleatorizado, doble ciego y controlado con placebo]. Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas 103(7): 599-607 [doi] [doi-2] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Remington JP, Wood HC, Sadtler SP, LaWall CH, Kraemer H, Anderson JF (Eds) (1918) The Dispensatory of the United States of America. 20th edn. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
  • Rodríguez A, De Barrio M, De Frutos C, de Benito V, Baeza ML (2001) Occupational allergy to fern. Allergy 56(1): 89-90 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Rudner EJ (1977) North American Group results. Contact Dermatitis 3(4): 208-209 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Schmalle HW, Jarchow OH, Hausen BM (1980) D:C-friedo-B' :A' -neo-Gammacer-9(11)-ene. Acta Crystallographica Section B 36(10): 2450-2453 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Schmidt RJ (1985) The super-nettles: a dermatologist's guide to ants in the plants. International Journal of Dermatology 24(4): 204-210 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Schmidt RJ (2017) Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 – a recast of the Cosmetic Products Directive 76/768/EEC – in regard to the safety of plant-derived cosmetic product ingredients. The Expert Witness (20): 35-37 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Sharma BK, Semwal IM, Chuhan S, Shankar R, Deb S (2010) Re-examining allergies to fern spores. Indian Journal of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 24(1): 39-41 [url] [url-2]
  • Shelley WB, Shelley ED, Welbourn WC (1985) Polypodium fern wreaths (Hagnaya). A new source of occupational mite dermatitis. Journal of the American Medical Association 253(21): 3137-3138 [doi] [url] [pmid]
  • Simán SE, Povey AC, Sheffield E (1999) Human health risks from fern spores? - A review. Fern Gazette 15(8): 275-287 [url] [url-2]
  • Standing Committee on Cosmetic Products (2019) Commission Decision (EU) 2019/701 of 5 April 2019 establishing a glossary of common ingredient names for use in the labelling of cosmetic products. Official Journal of the European Union 62(L 121): 1-370 [url] [url-2]
  • Stolze RG (1981) Ferns and fern allies of Guatemala. Part II. Polypodiaceae. Fieldiana: Botany (New Series, No. 6) Publication 1317: i-ix; 1-522 [url] [url-2]
  • Stoof TJ, Bruynzeel DP (1989) Contact allergy to Nephrolepsis ferns. Contact Dermatitis 20(3): 234-235 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Stuart M (1979) Reference section. In: Stuart M (Ed.) The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism, pp. 141-283. London: Orbis Publishing [WorldCat]
  • Stump M, Dhinsa H, Powers J, Stone M (2022) Attenuation of actinic prurigo eruptions with Polypodium leucotomos supplementation. Pediatric Dermatology 39(1): 145-146 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Tanew A, Radakovic S, Gonzalez S, Venturini M, Calzavara-Pinton P (2012) Oral administration of a hydrophilic extract of Polypodium leucotomos for the prevention of polymorphic light eruption. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 66(1): 58-62 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Tejedor A, Areces-Berazain F (2018) Cyathea ruttenbergii, a new tree fern (Cyatheaceae, Polypodiopsida) from Puerto Rico. Phytotaxa 336(3): 279-285 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Tejero-Díez JD, Mickel JT, Smith AR (2009) A hybrid Phlebodium (Polypodiaceae, Polypodiophyta) and its influence on the circumscription of the genus. American Fern Journal 99(2): 109-116 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Tipke I, Bücker L, Middelstaedt J, Winterhalter P, Lubienski M, Beuerle T (2019) HILIC HPLC-ESI-MS/MS identification and quantification of the alkaloids from the genus Equisetum. Phytochemical Analysis 30(6): 669-678 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Tourchi-Roudsari M (2014) Multiple effects of bracken fern under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 15(18): 7505-7513 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
  • Tripathi D, Benniamin A, Sundari MS, Jesubalan D, Singh B (2017) Medicinal pteridophytes of Kudremukh National Park, Central Western Ghats, Karnataka, India. Indian Fern Journal 34: 188-196 [url] [url-2]
  • Tryon R (1986) The biogeography of species, with special reference to ferns. The Botanical Review 52(2): 117-156 [doi] [url]
  • Ueda K, Higashi N, Kume A, Fujimoto M, Hino N (1999) Allergic contact dermatitis due to topical medicaments (1993-1996). Environmental Dermatology 6(2): 64-73 [url] [url-2]
  • Ule E (1906) Ameisenpflanzen. [Ant plants]. Botanische Jarbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie herausgegeben von A. Engler 37(3): 335-352 [url] [url-2]
  • Vargas J, Munoz C, Osorio C, Garcia-Olivares E (1983) Anapsos, an antipsoriatic drug which increases the proportion of suppressor cells in human peripheral blood. Annales d'Immunologie 134C(3): 393-400 [doi] [url] [pmid]
  • Watt JM, Breyer-Brandwijk MG (1962) The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. Being an account of their medicinal and other uses, chemical composition, pharmacological effects and toxicology in man and animal, 2nd edn. Edinburgh: E & S Livingstone [doi] [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
  • Willis JC (1973) A Dictionary of the Flowering Plants and Ferns, 8th edn. (Revised by Airy Shaw HK). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press [WorldCat]
  • Wilson KL (2016) Report of the General Committee: 15. Taxon 65(5): 1150-1151 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Wren RC (1975) Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. (Re-edited and enlarged by Wren RW). Bradford, Devon: Health Science Press [WorldCat] [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Yoshikawa M (1985) Skin lesions of papular urticaria induced experimentally by Cheyletus malaccensis and Chelacaropsis sp. (Acari: Cheyletidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 22(1): 115-117 [doi] [url] [pmid]
  • Zurita SG, Briones CMC, Preciado RV, Uraga PR (2013) Efecto del Polypodium leucotomos como adjuvante en la repigmentación inducida con UVB de banda estrecha en pacientes con vitíligo. [Effects of oral Polypodium leucotomos extract as adjuvant in the treatment of vitiligo with narrow-band UVB]. Medicina Cutánea Ibero-Latino-Americana 41(5): 205-209 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • [ + 194 further references not yet included in database]



Richard J. Schmidt

[Valid HTML 4.01!]


[2D-QR coded url]
url